How to format your references using the Chemical Physics Letters: X citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Chemical Physics Letters: X. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
K. Lu, Materials science. The future of metals, Science. 328 (2010) 319–320.
A journal article with 2 authors
E.F. DeLong, D.M. Karl, Genomic perspectives in microbial oceanography, Nature. 437 (2005) 336–342.
A journal article with 3 authors
P.A. Lind, O.G. Berg, D.I. Andersson, Mutational robustness of ribosomal protein genes, Science. 330 (2010) 825–827.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
D.W.J. Thompson, J.J. Kennedy, J.M. Wallace, P.D. Jones, A large discontinuity in the mid-twentieth century in observed global-mean surface temperature, Nature. 453 (2008) 646–649.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
R.M. Cooke, D. Nieboer, J. Misiewicz, Fat-Tailed Distributions: Volume 1, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2014.
An edited book
C. White, ed., The Materiality of Individuality: Archaeological Studies of Individual Lives, Springer US, New York, NY, 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
R. Wever, Structure and Function of Vanadium Haloperoxidases, in: H. Michibata (Ed.), Vanadium: Biochemical and Molecular Biological Approaches, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 2012: pp. 95–125.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Chemical Physics Letters: X.

Blog post
J. Davis, The Month In Which You’re Born Could Influence Which Diseases You Develop, IFLScience. (2015). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Social Security Needs To Better Plan, Develop, and Implement Its Major ADP Systems Redesign Projects, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1981.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
J.J. Zoino, Field Methods, Sampling Strategies, Historical Documents, and Data Redundancy: A Study of Historic Tenant Farmsteads in Leflore County, Mississippi, Doctoral dissertation, Mississippi State University, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
M. Santora, A.L. Baker, Despite Strict Gun Law, Doctor Was Able to Buy Assault Rifle, New York Times. (2017) A15.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleChemical Physics Letters: X
ISSN (print)2590-1419

Other styles