How to format your references using the Chemical Engineering Science: X citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Chemical Engineering Science: X. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Krimsky, S., 2011. Beware of gifts that come at too great a cost. Nature 474, 129.
A journal article with 2 authors
Nordborg, M., Weigel, D., 2008. Next-generation genetics in plants. Nature 456, 720–723.
A journal article with 3 authors
Liu, Y., Wang, J., Zhang, X., 2013. Accurate determination of the vapor-liquid-solid contact line tension and the viability of Young equation. Sci. Rep. 3, 2008.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Kraus, S., Hofmann, K.-H., Menten, K.M., Schertl, D., Weigelt, G., Wyrowski, F., Meilland, A., Perraut, K., Petrov, R., Robbe-Dubois, S., Schilke, P., Testi, L., 2010. A hot compact dust disk around a massive young stellar object. Nature 466, 339–342.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Shafer, D.A., 2005. Hazardous Materials Characterization. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Selkoe, D.J., Triller, A., Christen, Y. (Eds.), 2008. Synaptic Plasticity and the Mechanism of Alzheimer’s Disease, Research and Perspectives in Alzheimer’s Disease. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Clemente, J.B., Adorna, H.N., 2013. Some Improvements of Parallel Random Projection for Finding Planted (l,d)-Motifs, in: Nishizaki, S.-Y., Numao, M., Caro, J., Suarez, M.T. (Eds.), Theory and Practice of Computation: 2nd Workshop on Computation: Theory and Practice, Manila, The Philippines, September 2012, Proceedings, Proceedings in Information and Communications Technology. Springer Japan, Tokyo, pp. 64–81.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Chemical Engineering Science: X.

Blog post
Andrews, R., 2017. EPA Staff Try To Derail Confirmation Of Climate Denier Scott Pruitt [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2016. Explosives Detection Canines: TSA Has Enhanced Its Canine Program, but Opportunities May Exist to Reduce Costs (No. GAO-16-444T). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Nguyen, J., 2012. Adherence to medications among Vietnamese Americans 65 years of age and older (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Dynarski, S., 2014. Where College Ratings Hits the Wall. New York Times BU7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Krimsky, 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Krimsky, 2011; Nordborg and Weigel, 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Nordborg and Weigel, 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Kraus et al., 2010)

About the journal

Full journal titleChemical Engineering Science: X
ISSN (print)2590-1400

Other styles