How to format your references using the Chaos, Solitons & Fractals: X citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Chaos, Solitons & Fractals: X. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Motani R. Paleontology. Warm-blooded “sea dragons”? Science 2010;328:1361–2.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sloan PA, Palmer RE. Two-electron dissociation of single molecules by atomic manipulation at room temperature. Nature 2005;434:367–71.
A journal article with 3 authors
Orlitsky A, Santhanam NP, Zhang J. Always Good Turing: asymptotically optimal probability estimation. Science 2003;302:427–31.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Gratten J, Wilson AJ, McRae AF, Beraldi D, Visscher PM, Pemberton JM, et al. A localized negative genetic correlation constrains microevolution of coat color in wild sheep. Science 2008;319:318–20.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society (TMS). Supplemental Proceedings. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2011.
An edited book
Petković M, editor. Point Estimation of Root Finding Methods. vol. 1933. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
Iqbal R, Shah N, James A, Akhgar B, Younas M, Chao K-M. Developing Ubiquitous Collaborating Multi-Agent Systems Based on QoS Requirements. In: Shen W, Luo J, Lin Z, Barthès J-PA, Hao Q, editors. Computer Supported Cooperative Work in Design III: 10th International Conference, CSCWD 2006, Nanjing, China, May 3-5, 2006, Revised Selected Papers, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2007, p. 43–52.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Chaos, Solitons & Fractals: X.

Blog post
Andrew E. The strangest and biggest things in space. IFLScience 2013. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Issues Concerning the Future Operation of the Space Transportation System. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1982.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Biller JT. Cyber-Terrorism: Finding a Common Starting Point. Doctoral dissertation. George Washington University, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Grynbaum MM, Kelly K. Ousted Federal Prosecutor, a Trump Critic, Will Join CNN as an Analyst. New York Times 2017:B4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleChaos, Solitons & Fractals: X
ISSN (print)2590-0544

Other styles