How to format your references using the Chaos, Solitons & Fractals: X citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Chaos, Solitons & Fractals: X. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gravitz L. Liver cancer. Nature 2014;516:S1.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hsieh J, Schneider JW. Neuroscience. Neural stem cells, excited. Science 2013;339:1534–5.
A journal article with 3 authors
Heierli J, Gumbsch P, Zaiser M. Anticrack nucleation as triggering mechanism for snow slab avalanches. Science 2008;321:240–3.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Woodward J, Orr M, Cordray K, Greenbaum E. Enzymatic production of biohydrogen. Nature 2000;405:1014–5.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Schuenemeyer JH, Drew LJ. Statistics for Earth and Environmental Scientists. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2010.
An edited book
Markon S. Control of Traffic Systems in Buildings. London: Springer; 2006.
A chapter in an edited book
Gulati K, Khatri SP. Accelerating Boolean Satisfiability on a Custom IC. In: Khatri SP, editor. Hardware Acceleration of EDA Algorithms: Custom ICs, FPGAs and GPUs, Boston, MA: Springer US; 2010, p. 33–61.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Chaos, Solitons & Fractals: X.

Blog post
Andrew E. Study Finds Recreational Cannabis Use Is Associated With Abnormalities In The Brain. IFLScience 2014. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Special Education: Estimates of Handicapped Indian Preschoolers and Sufficiency of Services. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1990.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Huynhle M. High-Fat Diet-Induced Obesity Increases Resilience against Gram-Negative Bacterial Infection in Drosophila Larvae. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Morgan PL, Farkas G. Is Special Education Racist? New York Times 2015:A23.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleChaos, Solitons & Fractals: X
ISSN (print)2590-0544

Other styles