How to format your references using the Chaos, Solitons & Fractals: X citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Chaos, Solitons & Fractals: X. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Goonatilake S. Many paths to enlightenment. Nature 2000;405:399.
A journal article with 2 authors
Strässer K, Hurt E. Splicing factor Sub2p is required for nuclear mRNA export through its interaction with Yra1p. Nature 2001;413:648–52.
A journal article with 3 authors
Duckworth RA, Belloni V, Anderson SR. Evolutionary ecology. Cycles of species replacement emerge from locally induced maternal effects on offspring behavior in a passerine bird. Science 2015;347:875–7.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Periana RA, Mironov O, Taube D, Bhalla G, Jones CJ. Catalytic, oxidative condensation of CH4 to CH3COOH in one step via CH activation. Science 2003;301:814–8.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Keiser G. FTTX Concepts and Applications. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2006.
An edited book
Ferreira CE, Miyano S, Stadler PF, editors. Advances in Bioinformatics and Computational Biology: 5th Brazilian Symposium on Bioinformatics, BSB 2010, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, August 31-September 3, 2010. Proceedings. vol. 6268. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
Rutgersson A, Jaagus J, Schenk F, Stendel M, Bärring L, Briede A, et al. Recent Change—Atmosphere. In: The BACC II Author Team, editor. Second Assessment of Climate Change for the Baltic Sea Basin, Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015, p. 69–97.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Chaos, Solitons & Fractals: X.

Blog post
Andrews R. Nestlé’s New Sugar Type Means 40% Less Will Be Used In Its Chocolate. IFLScience 2016. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. NSF Experiment in Research Grant Administration Promising. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1982.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Shetter RM. Assaulting the littorals: The development and evolution of a dedicated American amphibious assault force. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh MW. Puerto Rico Has Another Debt Worry on Horizon. New York Times 2015:B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleChaos, Solitons & Fractals: X
ISSN (print)2590-0544

Other styles