How to format your references using the Chaos, Solitons and Fractals: the interdisciplinary journal of Nonlinear Science, and Nonequilibrium and Complex Phenomena citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Chaos, Solitons and Fractals: the interdisciplinary journal of Nonlinear Science, and Nonequilibrium and Complex Phenomena. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sax D. Journal club. A conservation biologist considers the role of nature reserves in a warming world. Nature 2010;466:669.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sheehan PM, Harris MT. Microbialite resurgence after the Late Ordovician extinction. Nature 2004;430:75–8.
A journal article with 3 authors
Smith J, Theodoris C, Davidson EH. A gene regulatory network subcircuit drives a dynamic pattern of gene expression. Science 2007;318:794–7.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Mezzacapo A, Las Heras U, Pedernales JS, DiCarlo L, Solano E, Lamata L. Digital quantum Rabi and Dicke models in superconducting circuits. Sci Rep 2014;4:7482.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Corten R. Computational Approaches to Studying the Co-evolution of Networks and Behavior in Social Dilemmas. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2014.
An edited book
Xu J, Wu Y, Zhang Y, Zhang J, editors. Fluid Machinery and Fluid Mechanics: 4th International Symposium (4th ISFMFE). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
Abukwaik H, Abujayyab M, Rombach D. Towards Seamless Analysis of Software Interoperability: Automatic Identification of Conceptual Constraints in API Documentation. In: Tekinerdogan B, Zdun U, Babar A, editors. Software Architecture: 10th European Conference, ECSA 2016, Copenhagen, Denmark, November 28 -- December 2, 2016, Proceedings, Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016, p. 67–83.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Chaos, Solitons and Fractals: the interdisciplinary journal of Nonlinear Science, and Nonequilibrium and Complex Phenomena.

Blog post
O`Callaghan J. Astronomers Prepare For First Ever Black Hole Image With New Algorithm. IFLScience 2016.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. The Problems of Management Information Systems: Why They Fail. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1972.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Schmittel M. The Children First Foundation Parenting Education Program: A Study on the Effectiveness of a Divorce Parenting Education Program. Doctoral dissertation. Southern Illinois University, 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Murphy MJO. A Look at Past Stories and Articles in The Times. New York Times 2015:C26.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleChaos, Solitons and Fractals: the interdisciplinary journal of Nonlinear Science, and Nonequilibrium and Complex Phenomena
AbbreviationChaos Solitons Fractals
ISSN (print)0960-0779
ScopeGeneral Mathematics

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