How to format your references using the Chaos, Solitons and Fractals: the interdisciplinary journal of Nonlinear Science, and Nonequilibrium and Complex Phenomena citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Chaos, Solitons and Fractals: the interdisciplinary journal of Nonlinear Science, and Nonequilibrium and Complex Phenomena. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:


PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
[1]
Morse SS. Retrospective: Joshua Lederberg (1925-2008). Science 2008;319:1351.
A journal article with 2 authors
[1]
O’Toole PW, Jeffery IB. Gut microbiota and aging. Science 2015;350:1214–5.
A journal article with 3 authors
[1]
Adini Y, Sagi D, Tsodyks M. Context-enabled learning in the human visual system. Nature 2002;415:790–3.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
[1]
Almeida MP, de Melo F, Hor-Meyll M, Salles A, Walborn SP, Ribeiro PHS, et al. Environment-induced sudden death of entanglement. Science 2007;316:579–82.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
[1]
Vitale J, Len IH. Zero Limits. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2008.
An edited book
[1]
Waller P. Irrigation and Drainage Engineering. 1st ed. 2016. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
[1]
Canetti R, Dodis Y, Pass R, Walfish S. Universally Composable Security with Global Setup. In: Vadhan SP, editor. Theory of Cryptography: 4th Theory of Cryptography Conference, TCC 2007, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, February 21-24, 2007. Proceedings, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2007, p. 61–85.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Chaos, Solitons and Fractals: the interdisciplinary journal of Nonlinear Science, and Nonequilibrium and Complex Phenomena.

Blog post
[1]
Andrew E. Scientists Show How Molecules Bind To HIV’s Protective Shell, Blocking Infection. IFLScience 2015.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
[1]
Government Accountability Office. School Finance: State Efforts to Equalize Funding Between Wealthy and Poor School Districts. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1998.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
[1]
Meghani HP. Med-Equip Solutions LLC: A wheelchair distributor company business plan. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
[1]
Cowley S, Silver-Greenberg J. Lost Paperwork May Erase Student Debt for Tens of Thousands. New York Times 2017:A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleChaos, Solitons and Fractals: the interdisciplinary journal of Nonlinear Science, and Nonequilibrium and Complex Phenomena
AbbreviationChaos Solitons Fractals
ISSN (print)0960-0779
ScopeGeneral Mathematics

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