How to format your references using the Cell Host & Microbe citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Cell Host & Microbe. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hoffert, M. (2011). Governments must pay for clean-energy innovation. Nature 472, 137.
A journal article with 2 authors
Youngs, H., and Somerville, C. (2014). Plant science. Best practices for biofuels. Science 344, 1095–1096.
A journal article with 3 authors
Gung, Y., Panning, M., and Romanowicz, B. (2003). Global anisotropy and the thickness of continents. Nature 422, 707–711.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Fenner, J., Stacer, A.C., Winterroth, F., Johnson, T.D., Luker, K.E., and Luker, G.D. (2014). Macroscopic stiffness of breast tumors predicts metastasis. Sci. Rep. 4, 5512.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kaltashov, I.A., and Eyles, S.J. (2005). Mass Spectrometry in Biophysics (Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.).
An edited book
Simms, C. (2009). Pedestrian and Cyclist Impact: A Biomechanical Perspective (Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands).
A chapter in an edited book
Issa, T., and Isaias, P. (2015). Color, Prototyping and Navigation, Principles and Guidelines Design, Evaluation and Testing; Task Analysis. In Sustainable Design: HCI, Usability and Environmental Concerns, P. Isaias, ed. (London: Springer), pp. 71–86.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Cell Host & Microbe.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015). Yes, Africa Will Feed Itself Within The Next 15 Years (IFLScience).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1989). Aviation Safety: FAA Has Improved Its Removal Procedures for Pilot Examiners (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hylton, J.K. (2016). Scatter; Or, A Series or Minor Inconveniences. Doctoral dissertation. University of Louisiana.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
(nyt), S.K. (2004). World Briefing | Europe: Russia: Prison For Bombings Investigator. New York Times A12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Hoffert, 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Hoffert, 2011; Youngs and Somerville, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Youngs and Somerville, 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Fenner et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleCell Host & Microbe
AbbreviationCell Host Microbe
ISSN (print)1931-3128
ISSN (online)1934-6069

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