How to format your references using the Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Claussen E. Climate policy. An effective approach to climate change. Science. 2004;306:816.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ishizaki K, Noda S. Manipulation of photons at the surface of three-dimensional photonic crystals. Nature. 2009;460:367–70.
A journal article with 3 authors
Yang R, Willett SD, Goren L. In situ low-relief landscape formation as a result of river network disruption. Nature. 2015;520:526–9.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Worobey M, Telfer P, Souquière S, Hunter M, Coleman CA, Metzger MJ, et al. Island biogeography reveals the deep history of SIV. Science. 2010;329:1487.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Fleckenstein P, Tranum-Jensen J, Myschetzky PS. Anatomy in Diagnostic Imaging. Oxford, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2014.
An edited book
Sadri F, Satoh K, editors. Computational Logic in Multi-Agent Systems: 8th International Workshop, CLIMA VIII, Porto, Portugal, September 10-11, 2007. Revised Selected and Invited Papers. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
Norman RA, Young EM. Dermatitis Herpetiformis. In: Young EM Jr, editor. Atlas of Geriatric Dermatology. London: Springer; 2014. page 43–6.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention.

Blog post
Andrew E. MRI Could Help Improve Breast Cancer Risk Prediction [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Immigration and Naturalization Service’s Survey of Illegal Aliens and Alien Documentation, Identification and Telecommunication System. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1979 Mar. Report No.: 108959.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Yates SL. Asian Indian women with gestational diabetes improving care for mothers and babies “Dals, Dosas and me” [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gustines GG. A Human Superstar Among the Superheroes. New York Times. 2012;C33.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleCancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
AbbreviationCancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
ISSN (print)1055-9965
ISSN (online)1538-7755

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