How to format your references using the Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Doudna J. Perspective: Embryo editing needs scrutiny. Nature. 2015;528:S6.
A journal article with 2 authors
Alonso JM, Stepanova AN. The ethylene signaling pathway. Science. 2004;306:1513–5.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hÿtch MJ, Putaux J-L, Pénisson J-M. Measurement of the displacement field of dislocations to 0.03 A by electron microscopy. Nature. 2003;423:270–3.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Huppert SS, Le A, Schroeter EH, Mumm JS, Saxena MT, Milner LA, et al. Embryonic lethality in mice homozygous for a processing-deficient allele of Notch1. Nature. 2000;405:966–70.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Nakhjiri M, Nakhjiri M. AAA and Network Security for Mobile Access. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2006.
An edited book
Rozema J, Aerts R, Cornelissen H, editors. Plants and Climate Change. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2006.
A chapter in an edited book
Weissenbacher ER, Wirth M, Mylonas I, Geburtshilfe KF, Ledger WJ, Witkin SS. Immunology of Genital Tract Infections. In: Wirth M, Mylonas I, Geburtshilfe KF, Ledger WJ, Witkin SS, editors. Immunology of the Female Genital Tract. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2014. page 65–162.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention.

Blog post
Andrew E. Slowdown Of Brain’s Waste Removal System Could Drive Alzheimer’s [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. [Federal Policies and Practices for Acquiring Information Technology Can Be Improved]. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1984 Jun. Report No.: 124890.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Grass DS. Assessing the impacts of air pollution and extreme weather on human health in the urban environment [Doctoral dissertation]. [New York, NY]: Columbia University; 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Markoff J. Exploring the Sea, No Sailors Needed. New York Times. 2016;B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleCancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
AbbreviationCancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
ISSN (print)1055-9965
ISSN (online)1538-7755

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