How to format your references using the Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Pardoll DM. Immunology. Stress, NK receptors, and immune surveillance. Science. 2001;294:534–6.
A journal article with 2 authors
Williams BG, Dye C. Antiretroviral drugs for tuberculosis control in the era of HIV/AIDS. Science. 2003;301:1535–7.
A journal article with 3 authors
Dong Z, Hoven CW, Rosenfield A. Lessons from the past. Nature. 2005;433:573–4.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Redhu NS, Shan L, Movassagh H, Gounni AS. Thymic stromal lymphopoietin induces migration in human airway smooth muscle cells. Sci Rep. 2013;3:2301.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Sinzinger S, Jahns J. Microoptics. Weinheim, FRG: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2005.
An edited book
Loh XJ, editor. In-Situ Gelling Polymers: For Biomedical Applications. Singapore: Springer; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
Le Dinh T, Ho VT, Nomo TS, Ayayi A. Towards a Cyberinfrastructure for Social Science Research Collaboration: The Service Science Approach. In: Nóvoa H, Drăgoicea M, editors. Exploring Services Science: 6th International Conference, IESS 2015, Porto, Portugal, February 4-6, 2015, Proceedings. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015. page 36–49.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention.

Blog post
Davis J. Missing “Galactic Dinosaurs” Found Hiding In Plain Sight [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. NSF’s Academic Facilities Program. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1995 Apr. Report No.: RCED-95-153R.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ren H. Modification and Characterization of Ordered Mesoporous Carbons for Resorcinol Removal [Doctoral dissertation]. [ Lafayette, LA]: University of Louisiana; 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Poniewozik J. Will He Let Loose the Hounds? New York Times. 2017;C5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleCancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
AbbreviationCancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
ISSN (print)1055-9965
ISSN (online)1538-7755

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