How to format your references using the Cancer Causes & Control citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Cancer Causes & Control. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gewin V (2002) While industrial agrobiotech R&D falters, opportunities in plant biology in the public sector are growing. Nature 419:4–5
A journal article with 2 authors
Prüfer K, Meyer M (2015) Anthropology. Comment on “Late Pleistocene human skeleton and mtDNA link Paleoamericans and modern Native Americans.” Science 347:835
A journal article with 3 authors
Zheng R-L, Zhang H, Jiang W-L (2014) Tumor necrosis factor-alpha 308G>A polymorphism and risk of rheumatic heart disease: a meta-analysis. Sci Rep 4:4731
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Yoon W, Boercker JE, Lumb MP, et al (2013) Enhanced open-circuit voltage of PbS nanocrystal quantum dot solar cells. Sci Rep 3:2225

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
MacRoberts (2014) MacRoberts on Scottish Construction Contracts. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Wagh MS, Draganov PV (2016) Pancreatic Masses: Advances in Diagnosis and Therapy. Springer International Publishing, Cham
A chapter in an edited book
Chen H, Chen G, Cai L, Yang Y (2016) Research of Large-Scale and Complex Agricultural Data Classification Algorithms Based on the Spatial Variability. In: Li D, Li Z (eds) Computer and Computing Technologies in Agriculture IX: 9th IFIP WG 5.14 International Conference, CCTA 2015, Beijing, China, September 27-30, 2015, Revised Selected Papers, Part I. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 45–52

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Cancer Causes & Control.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) Modified HIV Cures Rare Genetic Disorder In Children. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1976) Problems Resulting From Management Practices in Recruiting, Training, and Using Non-High-School Graduates and Category IV Personnel. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hilton LC (2015) Case study on organic farming as a sustainable solution for African-American farmers. Doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
Wagner J (2017) DeGrom, a Mets Constant in This Season’s Rotation, Stymies the Giants. New York Times SP4

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleCancer Causes & Control
AbbreviationCancer Causes Control
ISSN (print)0957-5243
ISSN (online)1573-7225
ScopeCancer Research

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