How to format your references using the Cancer Causes & Control citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Cancer Causes & Control. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Baird BN (2006) Comment on “Post-wildfire logging hinders regeneration and increases fire risk.” Science 313:615; author reply 615
A journal article with 2 authors
Sharp PA, Langer R (2011) Research agenda. Promoting convergence in biomedical science. Science 333:527
A journal article with 3 authors
Nishimune H, Sanes JR, Carlson SS (2004) A synaptic laminin-calcium channel interaction organizes active zones in motor nerve terminals. Nature 432:580–587
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Miao L, Vanderlinde O, Stewart M, Roberts TM (2003) Retraction in amoeboid cell motility powered by cytoskeletal dynamics. Science 302:1405–1407

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Stamp M (2005) Information Security. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Morello L (2011) The Automotive Body: Volume II: System Design. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht
A chapter in an edited book
Mottola G (2006) La valvola polmonare. In: Sheppard M, Pepper J, Rigby M (eds) Ecocardiografia clinica. Springer, Milano, pp 79–88

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Cancer Causes & Control.

Blog post
Hamilton K (2016) Why Alzheimer’s Research Is Failing To Hit Treatment Targets. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2007) Business Modernization: NASA Must Consider Agencywide Needs to Reap the Full Benefits of Its Enterprise Management System Modernization Effort. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Koonin LM (2013) Acceptability of pharmacies serving as primary dispensers of antiviral drugs during an influenza pandemic: Perspectives of pharmacy executives. Doctoral dissertation, University of North Carolina

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Widdicombe B (2017) Humming Along With the Dead. New York Times ST1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleCancer Causes & Control
AbbreviationCancer Causes Control
ISSN (print)0957-5243
ISSN (online)1573-7225
ScopeCancer Research

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