How to format your references using the Cancer Biology & Therapy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Cancer Biology & Therapy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Cohen P. How to make diplomats scientifically literate. Nature 2000; 405:116.
A journal article with 2 authors
Wang Z, Zhao Y. MATERIALS SCIENCE: High-Pressure Microscopy. Science 2006; 312:1149–50.
A journal article with 3 authors
Chen J, Rashid T, Feng G. Esterase in imported fire ants, Solenopsis invicta and S. richteri (Hymenoptera: Formicidae): activity, kinetics and variation. Sci Rep 2014; 4:7112.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Campbell DB, Black GJ, Carter LM, Ostro SJ. Radar evidence for liquid surfaces on Titan. Science 2003; 302:431–4.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Cronin R. Reading Victorian Poetry. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2012.
An edited book
Agha G, Igarashi A, Kobayashi N, Masuhara H, Matsuoka S, Shibayama E, Taura K, editors. Concurrent Objects and Beyond: Papers dedicated to Akinori Yonezawa on the Occasion of His 65th Birthday. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
Kihara K, Fujii Y, Saito K, Numao N, Matsuoka Y, Yoshida S, Tatokoro M, Kijima T. Gasless Two-Port Access RoboSurgeon Retroperitoneoscopic Radical Nephroureterectomy. In: Kihara K, editor. Gasless Single-Port RoboSurgeon Surgery in Urology. Tokyo: Springer Japan; 2015. page 65–84.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Cancer Biology & Therapy.

Blog post
Hale T. Another Dolphin Killed By Morons Dragging It From Sea To Take Photographs [Internet]. IFLScience2017 [cited 2018 Oct 30]; Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Indian Affairs: Key Actions Needed to Ensure Safety and Health at Indian School Facilities. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2016.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Estrada MI. A community risk assessment of the 90806 zip code. 2012;

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Cooper M. Met Opera Numbers Inch Up. New York Times2017; :C2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleCancer Biology & Therapy
AbbreviationCancer Biol. Ther.
ISSN (print)1538-4047
ISSN (online)1555-8576
ScopeCancer Research
Molecular Medicine

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