How to format your references using the Cancer Biology & Therapy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Cancer Biology & Therapy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Dickson BJ. Development. Wiring the brain with insulin. Science 2003; 300:440–1.
A journal article with 2 authors
Yartsev MM, Ulanovsky N. Representation of three-dimensional space in the hippocampus of flying bats. Science 2013; 340:367–72.
A journal article with 3 authors
Richland LE, Zur O, Holyoak KJ. Mathematics. Cognitive supports for analogies in the mathematics classroom. Science 2007; 316:1128–9.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Zhou Y, Han S-T, Yan Y, Huang L-B, Zhou L, Huang J, Roy VAL. Solution processed molecular floating gate for flexible flash memories. Sci Rep 2013; 3:3093.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hopkins BR. Starting and Managing a Nonprofit Organization. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2012.
An edited book
France RB, Kuester JM, Bordbar B, Paige RF, editors. Modelling Foundations and Applications: 7th European Conference, ECMFA 2011, Birmingham, UK, June 6 - 9, 2011 Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
Tiwari GN, Tiwari A, Shyam. Flat-Plate Collectors. In: Tiwari A, Shyam, editors. Handbook of Solar Energy: Theory, Analysis and Applications. Singapore: Springer; 2016. page 171–246.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Cancer Biology & Therapy.

Blog post
Hamilton K. Scientists Transplant Rat Testis To The Neck Of Another Rat [Internet]. IFLScience2017 [cited 2018 Oct 30]; Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Race to the Top: Survey of State Education Agencies’ Capacity to Implement Reform (GAO-15-316SP, April 2015), an E-supplement to GAO-15-295. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2015.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Nambiar VR. A Grounded Theory Study on Business Excellence Models in the United Arab Emirates. 2012;

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kishkovsky S. Dmitri Prigov, 66, Poet Who Challenged Soviet Authority. New York Times2007; :A21.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleCancer Biology & Therapy
AbbreviationCancer Biol. Ther.
ISSN (print)1538-4047
ISSN (online)1555-8576
ScopeCancer Research
Molecular Medicine

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