How to format your references using the Cancer Biology & Therapy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Cancer Biology & Therapy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lee PA. High-temperature superconductors. Some vortices like it hot. Nature 2000; 406:467–8.
A journal article with 2 authors
Anfinrud P, Schotte F. Chemistry. X-ray fingerprinting of chemical intermediates in solution. Science 2005; 309:1192–3.
A journal article with 3 authors
Nimmerjahn A, Kirchhoff F, Helmchen F. Resting microglial cells are highly dynamic surveillants of brain parenchyma in vivo. Science 2005; 308:1314–8.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Bastien GJ, Schepens B, Willems PA, Heglund NC. Energetics of load carrying in Nepalese porters. Science 2005; 308:1755.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Dauphiné A. Fractal Geography. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc; 2012.
An edited book
Molokovsky SI. Intense Electron and Ion Beams. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2005.
A chapter in an edited book
Casanovas P, Zeleznikow J. Online Dispute Resolution and Models of Relational Law and Justice: A Table of Ethical Principles. In: Casanovas P, Pagallo U, Palmirani M, Sartor G, editors. AI Approaches to the Complexity of Legal Systems: AICOL 2013 International Workshops, AICOL-IV@IVR, Belo Horizonte, Brazil, July 21-27, 2013 and AICOL-V@SINTELNET-JURIX, Bologna, Italy, December 11, 2013, Revised Selected Papers. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2014. page 54–68.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Cancer Biology & Therapy.

Blog post
Hale T. Check Out These Trippy Photographs Of Australia Taken From The International Space Station. IFLScience2015;


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. [Comments on NTSB Employee’s Claim for TQSE]. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1996.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Diaz Gonzalez AJ. High-Pressure Study of Bio-inspired Multi-Functional Nanocomposites Using Atomic Force Microscopy Methods. 2017;

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hodgman J. Bonus Advice From Judge John Hodgeman. New York Times2017; :MM24.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleCancer Biology & Therapy
AbbreviationCancer Biol. Ther.
ISSN (print)1538-4047
ISSN (online)1555-8576
ScopeCancer Research
Molecular Medicine

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