How to format your references using the Cancer Biology & Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Cancer Biology & Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Codispoti LA. Oceans. Interesting times for marine N2O. Science. 2010 Mar 12;327(5971):1339–40.
A journal article with 2 authors
Shao Z, Vollrath F. Surprising strength of silkworm silk. Nature. 2002 Aug 15;418(6899):741.
A journal article with 3 authors
Heymann DL, Sutter RW, Aylward RB. A global call for new polio vaccines. Nature. 2005 Apr 7;434(7034):699–700.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Mazmanian SK, Skaar EP, Gaspar AH, Humayun M, Gornicki P, Jelenska J, et al. Passage of heme-iron across the envelope of Staphylococcus aureus. Science. 2003 Feb 7;299(5608):906–9.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Simiu E. Design of Buildings for Wind. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2011.
An edited book
Ahmad MA, Shen C, Srivastava J, Contractor N, editors. Predicting Real World Behaviors from Virtual World Data. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014. XIV, 118 p. 40 illus., 27 illus. in color. (Springer Proceedings in Complexity).
A chapter in an edited book
Knepper MM, Fox KL, Frieder O. A Prototype Search Toolkit. In: Argamon S, Howard N, editors. Computational Methods for Counterterrorism. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2009. p. 51–64.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Cancer Biology & Medicine.

Blog post
Andrew D. What Do Aliens Look Like? The Clue Is In Evolution [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Advanced Airborne Command Post Program. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1973 Sep. Report No.: B-178570.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
McCoy N. Functionality Evaluation of the Wave Suppressor and Sediment Collection (WSSC) System: Wave Reduction, Sediment Collection, Mathematical Model, and Preliminary Field Evaluation [Doctoral dissertation]. [ Lafayette, LA]: University of Louisiana; 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Saslow L. New Group Chooses Its First Battle, Asthma. New York Times. 2008 Feb 24;LI5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleCancer Biology & Medicine
AbbreviationCancer Biol. Med.
ISSN (print)2095-3941
ScopeCancer Research

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