How to format your references using the Cancer Biology & Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Cancer Biology & Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Trewavas A. Malthus foiled again and again. Nature. 2002 Aug 8;418(6898):668–70.
A journal article with 2 authors
Moore KA, Lemischka IR. Stem cells and their niches. Science. 2006 Mar 31;311(5769):1880–5.
A journal article with 3 authors
Morgan AD, Gandon S, Buckling A. The effect of migration on local adaptation in a coevolving host-parasite system. Nature. 2005 Sep 8;437(7056):253–6.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Kepecs A, Uchida N, Zariwala HA, Mainen ZF. Neural correlates, computation and behavioural impact of decision confidence. Nature. 2008 Sep 11;455(7210):227–31.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Crichton RR, Ward RJ. Metal-based Neurodegeneration. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2006.
An edited book
Thillart G van D, Dufour S, Rankin JC, editors. Spawning Migration of the European Eel: Reproduction Index, a Useful Tool for Conservation Management. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2009. XI, 477 p. (Fish & Fisheries Series; vol. 30).
A chapter in an edited book
Bredereck R, Froese V, Hartung S, Nichterlein A, Niedermeier R, Talmon N. The Complexity of Degree Anonymization by Vertex Addition. In: Gu Q, Hell P, Yang B, editors. Algorithmic Aspects in Information and Management: 10th International Conference, AAIM 2014, Vancouver, BC, Canada, July 8-11, 2014 Proceedings. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014. p. 44–55. (Hutchison D, Kanade T, Kittler J, Kleinberg JM, Kobsa A, Mattern F, et al., editors. Lecture Notes in Computer Science).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Cancer Biology & Medicine.

Blog post
Taub B. The Ability To Regenerate Lost Limbs May Have Only Evolved Once [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Airport Financing: Comparing Funding Sources With Planned Development. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1998 Mar. Report No.: T-RCED-98-129.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Odom SA. Electronic health records: Overcoming obstacles to improve acceptance and utilization for mental health clinicians [Doctoral dissertation]. [Minneapolis, MN]: Capella University; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey G. Wilpons First Need To Replace Mind-Set. New York Times. 2010 Oct 5;B11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleCancer Biology & Medicine
AbbreviationCancer Biol. Med.
ISSN (print)2095-3941
ScopeCancer Research

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