How to format your references using the Cancer Biology & Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Cancer Biology & Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Angerer P. Graduate journal: the lab environment. Nature. 2004 Mar 11;428(6979):238.
A journal article with 2 authors
Roberts RG, Sutikna T. Michael John Morwood (1950-2013). Nature. 2013 Aug 22;500(7463):401.
A journal article with 3 authors
Rai A, Menon AV, Jalan S. Randomness and preserved patterns in cancer network. Sci Rep. 2014 Sep 15;4:6368.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Rinaldi S, Mura M, Castagna A, Fontani V. Long-lasting changes in brain activation induced by a single REAC technology pulse in Wi-Fi bands. Randomized double-blind fMRI qualitative study. Sci Rep. 2014 Jul 11;4:5668.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Chen W, Xiao H, Wang Q, Zhao L, Zhu M. Integrated Vehicle Dynamics and Control. Singapore: John Wiley & Sons Singapore Pte. Ltd; 2016.
An edited book
Tseng K-Y, editor. Cortico-Subcortical Dynamics in Parkinson’s Disease. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press; 2009. X, 316 p. 76 illus. (Contemporary Neuroscience).
A chapter in an edited book
Barra M. Pure Iteration and Periodicity. In: Beckmann A, Dimitracopoulos C, Löwe B, editors. Logic and Theory of Algorithms: 4th Conference on Computability in Europe, CiE 2008, Athens, Greece, June 15-20, 2008 Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2008. p. 42–51. (Lecture Notes in Computer Science).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Cancer Biology & Medicine.

Blog post
Fang J. Newly Discovered Species Of Extinct Dog Roamed North America 12 Million Years Ago. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Transportation Security Information Sharing: Stakeholder Satisfaction Varies; TSA Could Take Additional Actions to Strengthen Efforts. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2014 Jun. Report No.: GAO-14-506.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Chung Y-K. A comparison of particle swarm optimization algorithms in data clustering [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Burghardt LF. After 63 Years, A Boardwalk Is Back. New York Times. 2007 Jul 29;LI11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleCancer Biology & Medicine
AbbreviationCancer Biol. Med.
ISSN (print)2095-3941
ScopeCancer Research

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