How to format your references using the Cancer Biology & Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Cancer Biology & Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Dohlman HG. Diminishing returns. Nature. 2002 Aug 8;418(6898):591.
A journal article with 2 authors
Mittal S, Hafezi M. Materials science: Round the bend with microwaves. Nature. 2015 Jun 18;522(7556):292–3.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wang Y, Ran S, Yang G. Single molecular investigation of DNA looping and aggregation by restriction endonuclease BspMI. Sci Rep. 2014 Jul 31;4:5897.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Yao G, Luo Z, Pan F, Xu W, Feng YP, Wang X-S. Evolution of topological surface states in antimony ultra-thin films. Sci Rep. 2013;3:2010.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Petrozzi S. Practical Instrumental Analysis. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2012.
An edited book
Tosti A. Tricologia ambulatoriale: Malattie dei capelli e del cuoio capelluto. Piraccini BM, editor. Milano: Springer; 2014. XIV, 245 pagg.
A chapter in an edited book
Pachler N, Bachmair B, Cook J. Whither a Socio-Cultural Ecology of Learning with Mobile Devices. In: Bachmair B, Cook J, editors. Mobile Learning: Structures, Agency, Practices. Boston, MA: Springer US; 2010. p. 155–71.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Cancer Biology & Medicine.

Blog post
O`Callaghan J. Here’s What Actually Happened At Roswell In 1947. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2017.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. School Facilities: Condition of America’s Schools. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1995 Feb. Report No.: HEHS-95-61.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Van Name J. Boolean Partition Algebras [Doctoral dissertation]. [Tampa, FL]: University of South Florida; 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kishkovsky S. Russians See Church and State Come Closer. New York Times. 2012 Nov 1;A4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleCancer Biology & Medicine
AbbreviationCancer Biol. Med.
ISSN (print)2095-3941
ScopeCancer Research

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