How to format your references using the Cancer & Metabolism citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Cancer & Metabolism. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Medley GF. Epidemiology. Predicting the unpredictable. Science. 2001;294:1663–4.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Shirey SB, Richardson SH. Start of the Wilson cycle at 3 Ga shown by diamonds from subcontinental mantle. Science. 2011;333:434–6.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Råberg L, Sim D, Read AF. Disentangling genetic variation for resistance and tolerance to infectious diseases in animals. Science. 2007;318:812–4.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Williams TF, Mirando AC, Wilkinson B, Francklyn CS, Lounsbury KM. Secreted Threonyl-tRNA synthetase stimulates endothelial cell migration and angiogenesis. Sci Rep. 2013;3:1317.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Zink M. Scalable Video on Demand. West Sussex, England: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd,.; 2005.
An edited book
1. Ziviani N, Baeza-Yates R, editors. String Processing and Information Retrieval: 14th International Symposium, SPIRE 2007 Santiago, Chile, October 29-31, 2007 Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2007.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Levenson JS, Vicencio CP. Residence Restrictions. In: Jeglic EL, Calkins C, editors. Sexual Violence: Evidence Based Policy and Prevention. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016. p. 51–65.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Cancer & Metabolism.

Blog post
1. O`Callaghan J. New Metal Alloy Four Times Stronger Than Titanium Could Revolutionize Prosthetics [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Environmental Protection Agency: Comparing Annual Budgets for Science and Technology. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2000 Mar. Report No.: T-RCED-00-132.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Maddox CE. Postcolonial play: Encounters with sport and physical culture in contemporary India [Doctoral dissertation]. [College Park, MD]: University of Maryland, College Park; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Gustines GG. Hey, Archie! Want to Build An Empire? New York Times. 2010 Aug 15;BU1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleCancer & Metabolism
AbbreviationCancer Metab.
ISSN (online)2049-3002

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