How to format your references using the Canadian Journal of Development Studies / Revue canadienne d'études du développement citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Canadian Journal of Development Studies / Revue canadienne d'études du développement. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Fischer, Reinhard. 2008. “Developmental Biology. Sex and Poison in the Dark.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 320 (5882): 1430–1431.
A journal article with 2 authors
Tomita, Masaru, and Masato Murakami. 2003. “High-Temperature Superconductor Bulk Magnets That Can Trap Magnetic Fields of over 17 Tesla at 29 K.” Nature 421 (6922): 517–520.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ekström, Göran, Meredith Nettles, and Victor C. Tsai. 2006. “Seasonality and Increasing Frequency of Greenland Glacial Earthquakes.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 311 (5768): 1756–1758.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Atkinson, Lucy, Carol J. Milligan, Noel J. Buckley, and Jim Deuchars. 2002. “An ATP-Gated Ion Channel at the Cell Nucleus.” Nature 420 (6911): 42.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Liu, Henry H. 2011. Oracle Database Performance and Scalability. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
McGowan, Brian L., Robert T. Palmer, J. Luke Wood, and David F. Hibbler, eds. 2016. Black Men in the Academy: Narratives of Resiliency, Achievement, and Success. New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan US.
A chapter in an edited book
Foxe, David M. 2010. “The Relevance of Beautiful Infrastructure.” In Art Inspiring Transmutations of Life, edited by Patricia Trutty Coohill, 71–82. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Canadian Journal of Development Studies / Revue canadienne d'études du développement.

Blog post
Davis, Josh. 2015. “White House Set to Lift Restrictions on Marijuana Research.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1996. Programs for Land-Grant Schools. HEHS-96-91R. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ritter, Devon. 2008. “The EU and Conflict: Critically Assessing the Success of the ESDP and Its Impact in Conflict Areas.” Doctoral dissertation, Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, George. 2010. “Campus Kickoffs: Don’t Think Too Hard.” New York Times, August 26.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Fischer 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Fischer 2008; Tomita and Murakami 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Tomita and Murakami 2003)
  • Three authors: (Ekström, Nettles, and Tsai 2006)
  • 4 or more authors: (Atkinson et al. 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleCanadian Journal of Development Studies / Revue canadienne d'études du développement
AbbreviationRev. Can. Etudes Dev.
ISSN (print)0225-5189
ISSN (online)2158-9100

Other styles