How to format your references using the Canadian Journal of Development Studies / Revue canadienne d'études du développement citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Canadian Journal of Development Studies / Revue canadienne d'études du développement. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lopez, Sebastian. 2008. “Astronomy. The Universe Measured with a Comb.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 321 (5894): 1301–1302.
A journal article with 2 authors
Cresswell, James E., and Helen M. Thompson. 2012. “Comment on ‘A Common Pesticide Decreases Foraging Success and Survival in Honey Bees.’” Science (New York, N.Y.) 337 (6101): 1453; author reply 1453.
A journal article with 3 authors
Vafabakhsh, Reza, Joshua Levitz, and Ehud Y. Isacoff. 2015. “Conformational Dynamics of a Class C G-Protein-Coupled Receptor.” Nature 524 (7566): 497–501.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Kuznedelov, Konstantin, Leonid Minakhin, Anita Niedziela-Majka, Simon L. Dove, Dragana Rogulja, Bryce E. Nickels, Ann Hochschild, Tomasz Heyduk, and Konstantin Severinov. 2002. “A Role for Interaction of the RNA Polymerase Flap Domain with the Sigma Subunit in Promoter Recognition.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 295 (5556): 855–857.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Popescu, Dumitru, Amira Gharbi, Dan Stefanoiu, and Pierre Borne. 2017. Process Control Design for Industrial Applications. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Bouguettaya, Athman, Ingolf Krueger, and Tiziana Margaria, eds. 2008. Service-Oriented Computing – ICSOC 2008: 6th International Conference, Sydney, Australia, December 1-5, 2008. Proceedings. Vol. 5364. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Saad, Amir Putra Bin Md, Ardiyansyah Syahrom, Muhamad Noor Harun, and Mohammed Rafiq Abdul Kadir. 2016. “Conclusion.” In Wear Prediction on Total Ankle Replacement: Effect of Design Parameters, edited by Ardiyansyah Syahrom, Muhamad Noor Harun, and Mohammed Rafiq Abdul Kadir, 55–55. SpringerBriefs in Applied Sciences and Technology. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Canadian Journal of Development Studies / Revue canadienne d'études du développement.

Blog post
Andrews, Robin. 2016. “You Can Actually Fracture Your Penis.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2001. Metropolitan Area Acquisition (MAA) Implementation Issues. GAO-01-958R. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Coffman, Mitchell Ward. 2015. “A National Study of the Relationship between Home Access to a Computer and Academic Performance Scores of Grade 12 U.S. Science Students: An Analysis of the 2009 NAEP Data.” Doctoral dissertation, Lafayette, LA: University of Louisiana.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner, James. 2017. “Mets’ Plan to Deal With Injuries: Don’t Talk About Them So Much.” New York Times, May 26.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Lopez 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Lopez 2008; Cresswell and Thompson 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Cresswell and Thompson 2012)
  • Three authors: (Vafabakhsh, Levitz, and Isacoff 2015)
  • 4 or more authors: (Kuznedelov et al. 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleCanadian Journal of Development Studies / Revue canadienne d'études du développement
AbbreviationRev. Can. Etudes Dev.
ISSN (print)0225-5189
ISSN (online)2158-9100

Other styles