How to format your references using the Canadian Journal of Development Studies / Revue canadienne d'études du développement citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Canadian Journal of Development Studies / Revue canadienne d'études du développement. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lloyd, Seth. 2008. “Enhanced Sensitivity of Photodetection via Quantum Illumination.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 321 (5895): 1463–1465.
A journal article with 2 authors
Collini, Elisabetta, and Gregory D. Scholes. 2009. “Coherent Intrachain Energy Migration in a Conjugated Polymer at Room Temperature.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 323 (5912): 369–373.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wible, Brad, Jeffrey Mervis, and Nicholas S. Wigginton. 2014. “The Global Supply Chain. Rethinking the Global Supply Chain. Introduction.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 344 (6188): 1100–1103.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Tio, M., G. Udolph, X. Yang, and W. Chia. 2001. “Cdc2 Links the Drosophila Cell Cycle and Asymmetric Division Machineries.” Nature 409 (6823): 1063–1067.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Staudt, Günter. 2001. Experimentalphysik. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Berglund, Jenny, Yafa Shanneik, and Brian Bocking, eds. 2016. Religious Education in a Global-Local World. Vol. 4. Boundaries of Religious Freedom: Regulating Religion in Diverse Societies. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Mui, Raymond, and Phyllis Frankl. 2011. “Preventing Web Application Injections with Complementary Character Coding.” In Computer Security – ESORICS 2011: 16th European Symposium on Research in Computer Security, Leuven, Belgium, September 12-14,2011. Proceedings, edited by Vijay Atluri and Claudia Diaz, 80–99. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Canadian Journal of Development Studies / Revue canadienne d'études du développement.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2016. “Disease Evolution: Our Long History Of Fighting Viruses.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1994. Americans With Disabilities Act: Challenges Faced by Transit Agencies in Complying With the Act’s Requirements. RCED-94-58. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bartaula, Binayak. 2017. “Stand Level Growth and Survival Equations for Cutover Sites Loblolly Pine Plantations in the Mid-Gulf Region of Southern United States.” Doctoral dissertation, Mississippi State, MS: Mississippi State University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Curran, Mary. 2015. “New Yorkers for White Sauce.” New York Times, December 28.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Lloyd 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Lloyd 2008; Collini and Scholes 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Collini and Scholes 2009)
  • Three authors: (Wible, Mervis, and Wigginton 2014)
  • 4 or more authors: (Tio et al. 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleCanadian Journal of Development Studies / Revue canadienne d'études du développement
AbbreviationRev. Can. Etudes Dev.
ISSN (print)0225-5189
ISSN (online)2158-9100

Other styles