This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Canadian Journal of Anesthesia/Journal canadien d'anesthésie. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

## Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

## Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Shen MM (2015) Cancer: The complex seeds of metastasis. Nature 520:298–299
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Pagliarini RA, Xu T (2003) A genetic screen in Drosophila for metastatic behavior. Science 302:1227–1231
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Bruskotter JT, Enzler SA, Treves A (2011) Science and law. Rescuing wolves from politics: wildlife as a public trust resource. Science 333:1828–1829
A journal article with 5 or more authors
1.
Folco L, Di Martino M, El Barkooky A, et al (2010) The Kamil Crater in Egypt. Science 329:804

## Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Bunker G, Thomson D (2006) Delivering Utility Computing. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
1.
Sazgar M, Harden CL (2016) Controversies in Caring for Women with Epilepsy: Sorting Through the Evidence. Springer International Publishing, Cham
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Yuan C, Duan C, Wu F (2016) Robust $$\mathcal{H}_{\infty }$$ Switching Control of Polytopic Parameter-Varying Systems via Dynamic Output Feedback. In: Li SE, Deng K (eds) Automotive Air Conditioning: Optimization, Control and Diagnosis. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 53–72

## Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Canadian Journal of Anesthesia/Journal canadien d'anesthésie.

Blog post
1.
O`Callaghan J (2015) This Boy Was Arrested For Bringing A Clock To Class - And Now He’s Been Invited To The White House. In: IFLScience. https://www.iflscience.com/technology/scientists-rally-behind-teen-arrested-bomb-clock/. Accessed 30 Oct 2018

## Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office (2007) Public Transportation: Future Demand Is Likely for New Starts and Small Starts Programs, but Improvements Needed to the Small Starts Application Process. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

## Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Boucher D (2013) An action research project: Development of a pre-licensure examination review course for Emergency Medical Technician program graduates at a rural community college. Doctoral dissertation, Capella University

## News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Pilon M (2012) Saudi Team Is Opened to Women. New York Times B11

## In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].