How to format your references using the Canadian Journal of Anesthesia/Journal canadien d'anesthésie citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Canadian Journal of Anesthesia/Journal canadien d'anesthésie. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Barbier E (2012) Sustainability: Tax “societal ills” to save the planet. Nature 483:30
A journal article with 2 authors
Yeeles JTP, Marians KJ (2011) The Escherichia coli replisome is inherently DNA damage tolerant. Science 334:235–238
A journal article with 3 authors
Chaudhuri O, Parekh SH, Fletcher DA (2007) Reversible stress softening of actin networks. Nature 445:295–298
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Adamantidis AR, Zhang F, Aravanis AM, et al (2007) Neural substrates of awakening probed with optogenetic control of hypocretin neurons. Nature 450:420–424

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Khanlari R, Fard MS (2015) FIDIC Plant and Design-Build Form of Contract Illustrated. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Ismail AF (2015) Gas Separation Membranes: Polymeric and Inorganic. Springer International Publishing, Cham
A chapter in an edited book
Sofo A, Cicco N, Paraggio M, Scopa A (2010) Regulation of the Ascorbate–Glutathione Cycle in Plants Under Drought Stress. In: Anjum NA, Chan M-T, Umar S (eds) Ascorbate-Glutathione Pathway and Stress Tolerance in Plants. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp 137–189

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Canadian Journal of Anesthesia/Journal canadien d'anesthésie.

Blog post
Luntz S (2016) LEDs: Saving The World And Also Attracting Fewer Insects. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2001) Schools and Libraries Program: Update on E-Rate Funding. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Schwartz KA (2010) Dynamics of Teacher Self-Efficacy: Middle School Reading and Language Arts Teacher Responses on a Teacher Sense of Efficacy Scale. Doctoral dissertation, University of South Florida

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Sisario B (2016) Coachella Classic. New York Times B1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleCanadian Journal of Anesthesia/Journal canadien d'anesthésie
AbbreviationCan. J. Anaesth.
ISSN (print)0832-610X
ISSN (online)1496-8975
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine

Other styles