How to format your references using the Canadian Journal of Anesthesia/Journal canadien d'anesthésie citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Canadian Journal of Anesthesia/Journal canadien d'anesthésie. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Heller E (2000) Electrons in the looking glass. Nature 403:489, 491
A journal article with 2 authors
Ellis BE, Miles GP (2001) Plant biology. One for all? Science 292:2022–2023
A journal article with 3 authors
Willis GL, Moore C, Armstrong SM (2014) Parkinson’s disease, lights and melanocytes: looking beyond the retina. Sci Rep 4:3921
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Kondo T, Khasanov R, Takeuchi T, et al (2009) Competition between the pseudogap and superconductivity in the high-T(c) copper oxides. Nature 457:296–300

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bennett DH (2013) Bennett’s Cardiac Arrhythmias. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Oxford
An edited book
Lin D, Wang X, Yung M (2016) Information Security and Cryptology: 11th International Conference, Inscrypt 2015, Beijing, China, November 1-3, 2015, Revised Selected Papers. Springer International Publishing, Cham
A chapter in an edited book
Llobet M (2012) Terrorism: Limits Between Crime and War. The Fallacy of the Slogan ‘War on Terror.’ In: Masferrer A (ed) Post 9/11 and the State of Permanent Legal Emergency: Security and Human Rights in Countering Terrorism. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp 101–117

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Canadian Journal of Anesthesia/Journal canadien d'anesthésie.

Blog post
Davis J (2015) Eating Fish Linked To A Lower Risk Of Depression. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2010) Applying Agreed-Upon Procedures: Fiscal Year 2010 Airport and Airway Trust Fund Excise Taxes. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Berkland M (2015) Strain analysis of a detachment shear zone. Doctoral dissertation, University of Louisiana

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey G (2009) In Season of Defense, Recalling Swoboda’s Catch. New York Times B19

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleCanadian Journal of Anesthesia/Journal canadien d'anesthésie
AbbreviationCan. J. Anaesth.
ISSN (print)0832-610X
ISSN (online)1496-8975
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine

Other styles