How to format your references using the Canadian Journal of African Studies/ La Revue canadienne des études africaines citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Canadian Journal of African Studies/ La Revue canadienne des études africaines. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Podolak, Morris. “Planetary Science. The Case of Saturn’s Spin.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 317, no. 5843 (September 7, 2007): 1330–31.
A journal article with 2 authors
Tallis, Heather, and Jane Lubchenco. “Working Together: A Call for Inclusive Conservation.” Nature 515, no. 7525 (November 6, 2014): 27–28.
A journal article with 3 authors
Laubach, M., J. Wessberg, and M. A. Nicolelis. “Cortical Ensemble Activity Increasingly Predicts Behaviour Outcomes during Learning of a Motor Task.” Nature 405, no. 6786 (June 1, 2000): 567–71.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Rao, Rahul, Renu Sharma, Frank Abild-Pedersen, Jens K. Nørskov, and Avetik R. Harutyunyan. “Insights into Carbon Nanotube Nucleation: Cap Formation Governed by Catalyst Interfacial Step Flow.” Scientific Reports 4 (October 13, 2014): 6510.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Reiher, Markus, and Alexander Wolf. Relativistic Quantum Chemistry. D-69451 Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH, 2014.
An edited book
Sinha, Chandrasen K., and Mark Davenport, eds. Handbook of Pediatric Surgery. London: Springer, 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
Herek, Gregory M. “Sexual Stigma and Sexual Prejudice in the United States: A Conceptual Framework.” In Contemporary Perspectives on Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Identities, edited by Debra A. Hope, 65–111. Nebraska Symposium on Motivation. New York, NY: Springer, 2009.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Canadian Journal of African Studies/ La Revue canadienne des études africaines.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. “How Re-Analysing The Data Of Scientific Research Can Change The Findings.” IFLScience. IFLScience, July 29, 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. “Statutory Copyright Licenses: Stakeholders’ Views on a Phaseout of Licenses for Broadcast Programming.” Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, May 4, 2016.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Urquidi, Anthony J. “Condolences to All of You: Late Eulogies of a Half-Complacent Birthday Boy.” Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Ortved, John. “Enter, Hermès, West Coast Style.” New York Times, March 10, 2017.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text

About the journal

Full journal titleCanadian Journal of African Studies/ La Revue canadienne des études africaines
AbbreviationCan. J. Afr. Stud.
ISSN (print)0008-3968
ISSN (online)1923-3051
Sociology and Political Science
Cultural Studies

Other styles