How to format your references using the Canadian Journal of African Studies/ La Revue canadienne des études africaines citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Canadian Journal of African Studies/ La Revue canadienne des études africaines. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Shah, R. “Short-Sighted Move to Close the 12-m Telescope.” Nature 404, no. 6781 (April 27, 2000): 921.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kang, Tong Mook, and Donald W. Hilgemann. “Multiple Transport Modes of the Cardiac Na+/Ca2+ Exchanger.” Nature 427, no. 6974 (February 5, 2004): 544–48.
A journal article with 3 authors
Halevy, Itay, Shanan E. Peters, and Woodward W. Fischer. “Sulfate Burial Constraints on the Phanerozoic Sulfur Cycle.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 337, no. 6092 (July 20, 2012): 331–34.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Faure, J., Y. Glinec, A. Pukhov, S. Kiselev, S. Gordienko, E. Lefebvre, J-P Rousseau, F. Burgy, and V. Malka. “A Laser-Plasma Accelerator Producing Monoenergetic Electron Beams.” Nature 431, no. 7008 (September 30, 2004): 541–44.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kindmann, Rolf, and Matthias Kraus. Steel Structures. Berlin, Germany: Ernst & Sohn Verlag für Architektur und technische Wissenschaften GmbH & Co. KG, 2012.
An edited book
Seckbach, Joseph, and Maud Walsh, eds. From Fossils to Astrobiology: Records of Life on Earth and Search for Extraterrestrial Biosignatures. Vol. 12. Cellular Origin, Life in Extreme Habitats and Astrobiology. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands, 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
Kennedy, Ivan R., Mihály Kecskés, Rosalind Deaker, Rodney J. Roughley, Sally Marsh, Michael Rose, Abu Choudhury, et al. “Plant Growth-Promoting Diazotrophs: Optimising Their Role as Key Agents in Achieving More Efficient Nutrient Use by Field Crops.” In Biological Nitrogen Fixation: Towards Poverty Alleviation through Sustainable Agriculture: Proceedings of the 15th International Nitrogen Fixation Congress and the 12th International Conference of the African Association for Biological Nitrogen Fixation, edited by Felix D. Dakora, Samson B. M. Chimphango, Alex J. Valentine, Claudine Elmerich, and William E. Newton, 19–22. Current Plant Science and Biotechnology in Agriculture. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands, 2008.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Canadian Journal of African Studies/ La Revue canadienne des études africaines.

Blog post
Davis, Josh. “Orangutan Found To Imitate Human Speech For The First Time.” IFLScience. IFLScience, July 28, 2016.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. “DOD Business Transformation: Improved Management Oversight of Business System Modernization Efforts Needed.” Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, October 7, 2010.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wang, Bin. “An Embedded Method for Near-Wellbore Streamline Simulation.” Doctoral dissertation, University of Louisiana, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Stewart, James B. “Cadillac’s Ad Gambit: Selling Luxury Cars by Promoting Unity.” New York Times, February 23, 2017.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text

About the journal

Full journal titleCanadian Journal of African Studies/ La Revue canadienne des études africaines
AbbreviationCan. J. Afr. Stud.
ISSN (print)0008-3968
ISSN (online)1923-3051
Sociology and Political Science
Cultural Studies

Other styles