How to format your references using the Canadian Journal of African Studies/ La Revue canadienne des études africaines citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Canadian Journal of African Studies/ La Revue canadienne des études africaines. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sunda, William G. “Oceans. Iron and the Carbon Pump.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 327, no. 5966 (February 5, 2010): 654–55.
A journal article with 2 authors
Corten, G. P., and H. F. Veldkamp. “Aerodynamics. Insects Can Halve Wind-Turbine Power.” Nature 412, no. 6842 (July 5, 2001): 41–42.
A journal article with 3 authors
Polanen, Vonne van, Wouter M. Bergmann Tiest, and Astrid M. L. Kappers. “Target Contact and Exploration Strategies in Haptic Search.” Scientific Reports 4 (September 3, 2014): 6254.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Gegenwart, P., T. Westerkamp, C. Krellner, Y. Tokiwa, S. Paschen, C. Geibel, F. Steglich, E. Abrahams, and Q. Si. “Multiple Energy Scales at a Quantum Critical Point.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 315, no. 5814 (February 16, 2007): 969–71.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Binnie, Chris. Linux Server Security. Indianapolis, IN, USA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc, 2016.
An edited book
Banaszkiewicz, Paul A., and Deiary F. Kader, eds. Classic Papers in Orthopaedics. London: Springer, 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
Edwards, Kimberley L., and Graham Clarke. “SimObesity: Combinatorial Optimisation (Deterministic) Model.” In Spatial Microsimulation: A Reference Guide for Users, edited by Robert Tanton and Kimberley Edwards, 69–85. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands, 2013.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Canadian Journal of African Studies/ La Revue canadienne des études africaines.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. “Genetic Link Between Autism And Better Cognitive Ability Found.” IFLScience. IFLScience, March 11, 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. “Information Technology: OMB Has Made Improvements to Its Dashboard, but Further Work Is Needed by Agencies and OMB to Ensure Data Accuracy.” Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, March 15, 2011.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Chen, Gang. “Essays On Using Weather Derivatives In Dairy Production.” Doctoral dissertation, Ohio State University, 2005.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gregory Mankiw, N. “Advice for Trump: Ask an Economist.” New York Times, March 10, 2017.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text

About the journal

Full journal titleCanadian Journal of African Studies/ La Revue canadienne des études africaines
AbbreviationCan. J. Afr. Stud.
ISSN (print)0008-3968
ISSN (online)1923-3051
Sociology and Political Science
Cultural Studies

Other styles