How to format your references using the Canadian Journal of African Studies/ La Revue canadienne des études africaines citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Canadian Journal of African Studies/ La Revue canadienne des études africaines. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Macilwain, Colin. “The Future of Science Will Soon Be upon Us.” Nature 524, no. 7564 (August 13, 2015): 137.
A journal article with 2 authors
Mayr, Gerald, and Albrecht Manegold. “Can Ovarian Follicles Fossilize?” Nature 499, no. 7457 (July 11, 2013): E1.
A journal article with 3 authors
Chadderton, Paul, Troy W. Margrie, and Michael Häusser. “Integration of Quanta in Cerebellar Granule Cells during Sensory Processing.” Nature 428, no. 6985 (April 22, 2004): 856–60.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Qu, Dan, Min Zheng, Ligong Zhang, Haifeng Zhao, Zhigang Xie, Xiabin Jing, Raid E. Haddad, Hongyou Fan, and Zaicheng Sun. “Formation Mechanism and Optimization of Highly Luminescent N-Doped Graphene Quantum Dots.” Scientific Reports 4 (June 18, 2014): 5294.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Smith, Chris, and Darryl Meeking. How to Succeed at the Medical Interview. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2013.
An edited book
Kerschen, Gaetan, ed. Nonlinear Dynamics, Volume 2: Proceedings of the 32nd IMAC, A Conference and Exposition on Structural Dynamics, 2014. Conference Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Mechanics Series. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
Pastra, Aspasia S., Dimitrios N. Koufopoulos, and Ioannis P. Gkliatis. “Board Characteristics and the Presence of Women on the Board of Directors: The Case of the Greek Shipping Sector.” In Maritime Women: Global Leadership, edited by Momoko Kitada, Erin Williams, and Lisa Loloma Froholdt, 35–54. WMU Studies in Maritime Affairs. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2015.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Canadian Journal of African Studies/ La Revue canadienne des études africaines.

Blog post
Carpineti, Alfredo. “Iceland Is Drilling Four Kilometers Into A Volcano To Produce Clean Energy.” IFLScience. IFLScience, May 8, 2017.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. “Bigeye Bomb: An Evaluation of DOD’s Chemical and Developmental Tests.” Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, May 23, 1986.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Piper, Mark Harris. “A Study of the Effectiveness of Alternative Schools through an Examination of Graduation Rates, School Climate, Student Motivation, and Academic Rigor.” Doctoral dissertation, Lindenwood University, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Healy, Jack, and Serge F. Kovaleski. “One Mother, 7 Dead Newborns and a Stunned Community in Utah.” New York Times, April 27, 2014.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text

About the journal

Full journal titleCanadian Journal of African Studies/ La Revue canadienne des études africaines
AbbreviationCan. J. Afr. Stud.
ISSN (print)0008-3968
ISSN (online)1923-3051
Sociology and Political Science
Cultural Studies

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