How to format your references using the Burns & Trauma citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Burns & Trauma. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Kazlauskas R. Tech.Sight. Modeling--a tool for experimentalists. Science. 2001;293:2277–9.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Cruz A, Green BG. Thermal stimulation of taste. Nature. 2000;403:889–92.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Acuña JL, López-Urrutia Á, Colin S. Faking giants: the evolution of high prey clearance rates in jellyfishes. Science. 2011;333:1627–9.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Yang Y, Huang F, Chen C-F, Xia M, Cai Q, Qian F-J, et al. Control self-assembly of hydrazide-based cyclic hexamers: in or out. Sci Rep. 2013;3:1059.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Chan EP. Algorithmic Trading. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2013.
An edited book
1. Tymieniecka A-T, editor. Memory in the Ontopoesis of Life: Book One. Memory in the Generation and Unfolding of Life. 1st ed. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Chow SSM, Haralambiev K. Non-interactive Confirmer Signatures. In: Kiayias A, editor. Topics in Cryptology – CT-RSA 2011: The Cryptographers’ Track at the RSA Conference 2011, San Francisco, CA, USA, February 14-18, 2011 Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2011. p. 49–64.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Burns & Trauma.

Blog post
1. Davis J. Fracking Set To Take Place In England For First Time In Five Years [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Earth Observing System: Funding Requirements for NASA’s EOSDIS. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1995 Jun. Report No.: AIMD-95-153FS.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Coleman MJ. Surface accuracy analysis and mathematical modeling of deployable large aperture elastic antenna reflectors [Doctoral dissertation]. [Washington, DC]: George Washington University; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Brantley B. Seizing the Day, Hankie in Hand. New York Times. 2016 Nov 18;C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBurns & Trauma
AbbreviationBurns Trauma
ISSN (online)2321-3876

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