How to format your references using the Burns & Trauma citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Burns & Trauma. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Braun DC. Comment on “Detection of emerging sunspot regions in the solar interior.” Science. 2012;336:296; author reply 296.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Strausberg RL, Schreiber SL. From knowing to controlling: a path from genomics to drugs using small molecule probes. Science. 2003;300:294–5.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Kim S, Ubel P, De Vries R. Pruning the regulatory tree. Nature. 2009;457:534–5.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Manzano G, Galve F, Giorgi GL, Hernández-García E, Zambrini R. Synchronization, quantum correlations and entanglement in oscillator networks. Sci Rep. 2013;3:1439.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Chen N. Aerothermodynamics of Turbomachinery. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2010.
An edited book
1. Sasaki R, Qing S, Okamoto E, Yoshiura H, editors. Security and Privacy in the Age of Ubiquitous Computing: IFIP TC11 20th International Information Security Conference May 30 – June 1, 2005, Chiba, Japan. Boston, MA: Springer US; 2005.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Ignatiev AA, Lyashenko AV. Heteromagnetic Oscillator. In: Lyashenko AV, editor. Heteromagnetic Microelectronics: Microsystems of Active Type. New York, NY: Springer; 2010. p. 175–97.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Burns & Trauma.

Blog post
1. Davis J. Genetically Engineered Bacteria Could Detect Cancer And Tell You By Making Your Pee Glow [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Space Acquisitions: Uncertainties in the Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicle Program Pose Management and Oversight Challenges. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2008 Sep. Report No.: GAO-08-1039.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Sullivan TJ. Molecular Ecology, Disease Ecology, and Candidate Genes for Pathogen Resistance in the Blue Crab Callinectes sapidus [Doctoral dissertation]. [ Lafayette, LA]: University of Louisiana; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Lee L. A Clean Desk, At Least For Starters. New York Times. 2008 Jan 24;F3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBurns & Trauma
AbbreviationBurns Trauma
ISSN (online)2321-3876

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