How to format your references using the Burns & Trauma citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Burns & Trauma. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Veis A. Materials science. A window on biomineralization. Science. 2005;307:1419–20.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Gilman SL, Glaze FE. History of science. “How science survived”--medieval manuscripts as fossils. Science. 2005;307:1208–9.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Bruner SD, Norman DP, Verdine GL. Structural basis for recognition and repair of the endogenous mutagen 8-oxoguanine in DNA. Nature. 2000;403:859–66.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Greenleaf WJ, Frieda KL, Foster DAN, Woodside MT, Block SM. Direct observation of hierarchical folding in single riboswitch aptamers. Science. 2008;319:630–3.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Zarowski CJ. An Introduction to Numerical Analysis for Electrical and Computer Engineers. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2004.
An edited book
1. Camacho AG, Díaz JI, Fernändez J, editors. Earth Sciences and Mathematics: Volune II. Basel: Birkhäuser; 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Cooper DS. Completion Thyroidectomy in a Patient with Low-Risk Papillary Cancer. In: Cooper DS, Durante C, editors. Thyroid Cancer: A Case-Based Approach. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016. p. 45–9.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Burns & Trauma.

Blog post
1. Hamilton K. This Map Shows What White Europeans Associate With Race – And It Makes For Uncomfortable Reading [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2017 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Proposed Facility Requirements for the National Center for Toxicological Research and the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1977 Dec. Report No.: HRD-78-29.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Reser G. Assessing the Relationship between Adult Attachment and Differentiation of Self to Coparental Divorce Adjustment [Doctoral dissertation]. [Scottsdale, AZ]: Northcentral University; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Kanter J. Europe Weighs Tax Plans Aimed at Online Giants. New York Times. 2017 Sep 20;B4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBurns & Trauma
AbbreviationBurns Trauma
ISSN (online)2321-3876

Other styles