How to format your references using the Bone & Joint Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Bone & Joint Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Glazebrook K. Galaxy formation: Too small to ignore. Nature. 2009 Aug 6;460(7256):694–5.
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Field B, Osbourn AE. Metabolic diversification--independent assembly of operon-like gene clusters in different plants. Science. 2008 Apr 25;320(5875):543–7.
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Pullium JK, Roble GS, Raymond MA. Emergency planning: Be prepared. Nature. 2014 Oct 23;514(7523):430.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1.
Mair A, Vaziri A, Weihs G, Zeilinger A. Entanglement of the orbital angular momentum states of photons. Nature. 2001 Jul 19;412(6844):313–6.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Pines JM, Carpenter CR, Raja AS, Schuur JD. Evidence-Based Emergency Care. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2012.
An edited book
1.
Maradudin AA, editor. Light Scattering and Nanoscale Surface Roughness. Boston, MA: Springer US; 2007. XXIV, 496 p. 133 illus. (Nanostructure Science and Technology).
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Stober T, Hansmann U. Considerations on Teaming and Leadership. In: Hansmann U, editor. Agile Software Development: Best Practices for Large Software Development Projects. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2010. p. 75–92.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Bone & Joint Research.

Blog post
1.
Andrew E. Obesity Drug May Be On The Horizon After Study Pinpoints Genetic Mechanism [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from: https://www.iflscience.com/health-and-medicine/obesity-drug-may-be-horizon-after-study-pinpoints-genetic-mechanism/

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office. Aviation Safety: FAA’s Efforts to Implement Recommendations to Improve Certification and Regulatory Consistency Face Some Challenges. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2014 Jul. Report No.: GAO-14-728T.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Rich DW. Examining the relationship of values-based management in performance evaluations [Doctoral dissertation]. [Scottsdale, AZ]: Northcentral University; 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
McKINLEY J, Yee V. Questioning Cuomo’s Order on Homelessness. New York Times. 2016 Jan 5;A16.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleBone & Joint Research
AbbreviationBone Joint Res.
ISSN (online)2046-3758
Scope

Other styles