How to format your references using the Bone & Joint Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Bone & Joint Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Brody H. Cancer prevention. Nature. 2011 Mar 24;471(7339):S1.
A journal article with 2 authors
Jordan KD, Johnson MA. Chemistry. Downsizing the hydrated electron’s lair. Science. 2010 Jul 2;329(5987):42–3.
A journal article with 3 authors
Saavedra S, Reed-Tsochas F, Uzzi B. A simple model of bipartite cooperation for ecological and organizational networks. Nature. 2009 Jan 22;457(7228):463–6.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Robinson P, Harrison RJ, McEnroe SA, Hargraves RB. Lamellar magnetism in the haematite-ilmenite series as an explanation for strong remanent magnetization. Nature. 2002 Aug 1;418(6897):517–20.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Pascoe N. Reliability Technology. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2011.
An edited book
Geer G van der, Moonen B, Schoof R, editors. Number Fields and Function Fields—Two Parallel Worlds. Boston, MA: Birkhäuser; 2005. XIII, 321 p. (Progress in Mathematics; vol. 239).
A chapter in an edited book
Camilleri D, Damianou A, Jackson H, Lawrence N, Prescott T. iCub Visual Memory Inspector: Visualising the iCub’s Thoughts. In: Lepora NF, Mura A, Mangan M, Verschure PFMJ, Desmulliez M, Prescott TJ, editors. Biomimetic and Biohybrid Systems: 5th International Conference, Living Machines 2016, Edinburgh, UK, July 19-22, 2016 Proceedings. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016. p. 48–57. (Lecture Notes in Computer Science).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Bone & Joint Research.

Blog post
O`Callaghan J. Stunning New Images Of Ceres Show A Lonely Pyramid-like Mountain [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Joint Strike Fighter: Progress Made and Challenges Remain. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2007 Mar. Report No.: GAO-07-360.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Perez V. Overrepresentation of American Indian youth in foster care: A grant proposal [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner J. Baseball; Mets Face Pitching Decisions. New York Times. 2017 Mar 27;B12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleBone & Joint Research
AbbreviationBone Joint Res.
ISSN (online)2046-3758

Other styles