How to format your references using the Bone & Joint Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Bone & Joint Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Chin JW. Molecular biology. Reprogramming the genetic code. Science. 2012 Apr 27;336(6080):428–9.
A journal article with 2 authors
Dietrich WE, Perron JT. The search for a topographic signature of life. Nature. 2006 Jan 26;439(7075):411–8.
A journal article with 3 authors
Randow F, MacMicking JD, James LC. Cellular self-defense: how cell-autonomous immunity protects against pathogens. Science. 2013 May 10;340(6133):701–6.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Franzese G, Malescio G, Skibinsky A, Buldyrev SV, Stanley HE. Generic mechanism for generating a liquid-liquid phase transition. Nature. 2001 Feb 8;409(6821):692–5.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Gardner S, Birley S. Blogging for Dummies®. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley Publishing, Inc.; 2010.
An edited book
Grote U, Basu AK, Chau NH, editors. New Frontiers in Environmental and Social Labeling. Heidelberg: Physica-Verlag HD; 2007. VIII, 241 p. 18 illus. (Sustainability and Innovation).
A chapter in an edited book
Kuzmanić I, Vujović I. Parameters Influencing Reliability and Availability of the System. In: Vujović I, editor. Reliability and Availability of Quality Control Based on Wavelet Computer Vision. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015. p. 15–6. (SpringerBriefs in Electrical and Computer Engineering).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Bone & Joint Research.

Blog post
Carpineti A. Physicists Think They May Have Accidentally Discovered Dark Matter [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Federal Family Education Loan Program: Increased Department of Education Oversight of Lender and School Activities Needed to Help Ensure Program Compliance. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2007 Jul. Report No.: GAO-07-750.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Koller RJ. The nonlinear relationship of individual commitment to organizational change and behavioral support [Doctoral dissertation]. [Minneapolis, MN]: Capella University; 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
Hyduk J. Looking Back (Sigh) at the End (Sigh) of a Great Season (Sigh). New York Times. 2016 Nov 4;D4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleBone & Joint Research
AbbreviationBone Joint Res.
ISSN (online)2046-3758

Other styles