How to format your references using the Bone & Joint Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Bone & Joint Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Milburn GJ. Physics. Quantum measurement and control of single spins in diamond. Science. 2010 Nov 26;330(6008):1188–9.
A journal article with 2 authors
Garrott RA, Oli MK. Conservation. A critical crossroad for BLM’s wild horse program. Science. 2013 Aug 23;341(6148):847–8.
A journal article with 3 authors
Solter LF, Kyei-Poku GK, Johny S. Comment on “Invasive harlequin ladybird carries biological weapons against native competitors.” Science. 2013 Sep 20;341(6152):1342.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
McCarroll L, Paton MG, Karunaratne SH, Jayasuryia HT, Kalpage KS, Hemingway J. Insecticides and mosquito-borne disease. Nature. 2000 Oct 26;407(6807):961–2.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Sommers-Flanagan J, Sommers-Flanagan R. Tough Kids Cool Counseling. Alexandria, VA, USA: American Counseling Association; 2015.
An edited book
Steels L, editor. Computational Issues in Fluid Construction Grammar: A New Formalism for the Representation of Lexicons and Grammars. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2012. X, 331 p. 102 illus. (Lecture Notes in Computer Science; vol. 7249).
A chapter in an edited book
Chan K, Poernomo I. Consistent Metric Usage: From Design to Deployment. In: Eusgeld I, Freiling FC, Reussner R, editors. Dependability Metrics: Advanced Lectures. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2008. p. 19–36. (Lecture Notes in Computer Science).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Bone & Joint Research.

Blog post
Andrew E. The 2015 Flu Vaccine – What’s New, Who Should Get It And Why [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Next Generation Air Transportation System: Status of Transformation and Issues Associated with Midterm Implementation of Capabilities. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2009 Mar. Report No.: GAO-09-479T.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Weber C. Exercise for older adults with dementia [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Otis J. Decades After a Stroke, Seeking Independence and Normalcy. New York Times. 2017 Oct 23;A20.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleBone & Joint Research
AbbreviationBone Joint Res.
ISSN (online)2046-3758

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