How to format your references using the Bone & Joint Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Bone & Joint Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Marx V. Neurobiology: Brain mapping in high resolution. Nature. 2013 Nov 7;503(7474):147–52.
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Bonn D, Denn MM. Materials science. Yield stress fluids slowly yield to analysis. Science. 2009 Jun 12;324(5933):1401–2.
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Haince J-F, Rouleau M, Poirier GG. Transcription. Gene expression needs a break to unwind before carrying on. Science. 2006 Jun 23;312(5781):1752–3.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1.
Fritz JH, Rojas OL, Simard N, McCarthy DD, Hapfelmeier S, Rubino S, et al. Acquisition of a multifunctional IgA+ plasma cell phenotype in the gut. Nature. 2011 Dec 11;481(7380):199–203.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Murdoch I, Turpin S, Johnston B, MacLullich A, Losman E. Geriatric Emergencies. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2014.
An edited book
1.
Rieser V. Reinforcement Learning for Adaptive Dialogue Systems: A Data-driven Methodology for Dialogue Management and Natural Language Generation. Lemon O, editor. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2011. XVI, 256 p. (Theory and Applications of Natural Language Processing).
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Miska M, Warita H, Torday A, Kuwahara M. International Traffic Database: Gathering Traffic Data Fast and Intuitive. In: Barceló J, Kuwahara M, editors. Traffic Data Collection and its Standardization. New York, NY: Springer; 2010. p. 47–56. (International Series in Operations Research & Management Science).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Bone & Joint Research.

Blog post
1.
Andrew D. Watch A Goblin Shark Take A Bite [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from: https://www.iflscience.com/plants-and-animals/goblin-shark-bite/

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office. Year 2000 Computing Crisis: Medicare and the Delivery of Health Services Are at Risk. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1999 Feb. Report No.: T-AIMD-99-89.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Voss J. Supported housing program for severely mentally ill homeless individuals: A grant proposal [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Oestreich JR. Revisiting a Conductor’s Early Triumph, With Touches of Mystery and Elegance. New York Times. 2016 Oct 11;C5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleBone & Joint Research
AbbreviationBone Joint Res.
ISSN (online)2046-3758
Scope

Other styles