How to format your references using the Bone & Joint Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Bone & Joint Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Blaser H-U. Chemistry. A golden boost to an old reaction. Science. 2006 Jul 21;313(5785):312–3.
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Malone JH, Michalak P. Physiological sex predicts hybrid sterility regardless of genotype. Science. 2008 Jan 4;319(5859):59.
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Deitsch KW, Calderwood MS, Wellems TE. Malaria. Cooperative silencing elements in var genes. Nature. 2001 Aug 30;412(6850):875–6.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1.
Tang W, Lu Y, Tian Q-Y, Zhang Y, Guo F-J, Liu G-Y, et al. The growth factor progranulin binds to TNF receptors and is therapeutic against inflammatory arthritis in mice. Science. 2011 Apr 22;332(6028):478–84.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Hewitt A. Construction Claims & Responses. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2016.
An edited book
1.
Badica C, Mangioni G, Carchiolo V, Burdescu DD, editors. Intelligent Distributed Computing, Systems and Applications: Proceedings of the 2nd International Symposium on Intelligent Distributed Computing – IDC 2008, Catania, Italy, 2008. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2008. XIV, 312 p. 92 illus. (Studies in Computational Intelligence; vol. 162).
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Hernandez AM, Peterson AL. Work-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders and Pain. In: Gatchel RJ, Schultz IZ, editors. Handbook of Occupational Health and Wellness. Boston, MA: Springer US; 2012. p. 63–85.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Bone & Joint Research.

Blog post
1.
Andrew E. First Waterproof, Wireless Smart Earphones Are A Game Changer [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from: https://www.iflscience.com/technology/worlds-first-wireless-smart-earphones-are-game-changer/

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office. Export Controls: NASA Management Action and Improved Oversight Needed to Reduce the Risk of Unauthorized Access to Its Technologies. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2014 Apr. Report No.: GAO-14-315.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Wong AN. The model minority at risk: Barriers to mental health access for Chinese Americans [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Saslow L. Bill Would Make Offenders Share Probation Costs. New York Times. 2007 May 27;LI2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleBone & Joint Research
AbbreviationBone Joint Res.
ISSN (online)2046-3758
Scope

Other styles