How to format your references using the BMJ Supportive & Palliative Care citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for BMJ Supportive & Palliative Care. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lang RF. Astronomy. Fishing for the universe. Science 2010;327:1582–3.
A journal article with 2 authors
Schuske K, Jorgensen EM. Neuroscience. Vesicular glutamate transporter--shooting blanks. Science 2004;304:1750–2.
A journal article with 3 authors
Neale MJ, Pan J, Keeney S. Endonucleolytic processing of covalent protein-linked DNA double-strand breaks. Nature 2005;436:1053–7.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Bergles DE, Roberts JD, Somogyi P, et al. Glutamatergic synapses on oligodendrocyte precursor cells in the hippocampus. Nature 2000;405:187–91.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ancheyta J. Deactivation of Heavy Oil Hydroprocessing Catalysts. Hoboken, New Jersey: : John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2016.
An edited book
Tachibanaki T, editor. Advances in Happiness Research: A Comparative Perspective. 1st ed. 2016. Tokyo: : Springer Japan 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Pattanaik PK, Xu Y. Rationality and Context-Dependent Preferences. In: Binder C, Codognato G, Teschl M, et al., eds. Individual and Collective Choice and Social Welfare: Essays in Honor of Nick Baigent. Berlin, Heidelberg: : Springer 2015. 49–63.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for BMJ Supportive & Palliative Care.

Blog post
Carpineti A. Forecasting The Weather Of Distant Hot Jupiters. IFLScience. 2016. (accessed 30 Oct 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Earth Observing System: NASA’s EOSDIS Development Approach Is Risky. Washington, DC: : U.S. Government Printing Office 1992.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Clément V. From Adaptation to Transformation: A Resilience Perspective on Organizational Responses to Ecological Adversity. 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh MW. Volcker Sees Hidden Peril in State Budget Practices. New York Times. 2015;:B5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBMJ Supportive & Palliative Care
AbbreviationBMJ Support. Palliat. Care
ISSN (print)2045-435X
ISSN (online)2045-4368
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Medicine (miscellaneous)

Other styles