How to format your references using the BMJ Open Diabetes Research & Care citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for BMJ Open Diabetes Research & Care. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lovett RA. PLANETARY SCIENCE: ‘Spiders’ Channel Mars Polar Ice Cap. Science 2000;289:1853a–4a.
A journal article with 2 authors
Lambeck K, Chappell J. Sea level change through the last glacial cycle. Science 2001;292:679–86.
A journal article with 3 authors
Boyd RW, Chan KWC, O’Sullivan MN. Physics. Quantum weirdness in the lab. Science 2007;317:1874–5.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Ren M, Shang C, Zhong X, et al. Insulin-producing cells from embryonic stem cells rescues hyperglycemia via intra-spleen migration. Sci Rep 2014;4:7586.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Piantadosi S. Clinical Trials: A Methodologic Perspective. Hoboken, NJ: : John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2005.
An edited book
Suzuki T, Ohtsubo K, Taniguchi N, editors. Sugar Chains: Decoding the Functions of Glycans. Tokyo: : Springer Japan 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
Klugkist I. Encompassing Prior Based Model Selection for Inequality Constrained Analysis of Variance. In: Hoijtink H, Klugkist I, Boelen PA, eds. Bayesian Evaluation of Informative Hypotheses. New York, NY: : Springer 2008. 53–83.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for BMJ Open Diabetes Research & Care.

Blog post
Andrew E. What Flows On Pluto? IFLScience. 2015. (accessed 30 Oct 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. K-12 Education: States’ Test Security Policies and Procedures Varied. Washington, DC: : U.S. Government Printing Office 2013.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Benware A. The Roles of Teaching Experience and Authoritative Classroom Management Style on Student Discipline. 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Koblin J. ‘Today’ Host Discussing NBC Exit After Lewd Tape. New York Times. 2016;:B6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBMJ Open Diabetes Research & Care
AbbreviationBMJ Open Diabetes Res. Care
ISSN (online)2052-4897

Other styles