How to format your references using the BMJ Open Diabetes Research & Care citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for BMJ Open Diabetes Research & Care. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Woo HJ. Stationary distribution of self-organized states and biological information generation. Sci Rep 2013;3:3329.
A journal article with 2 authors
Lavik E, Ustin J. Medicine. Leveraging shear stress to bust clots with nanoparticles. Science 2012;337:658–9.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wang C, Shim M, Guyot-Sionnest P. Electrochromic nanocrystal quantum dots. Science 2001;291:2390–2.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Hernandez LD, Hueffer K, Wenk MR, et al. Salmonella modulates vesicular traffic by altering phosphoinositide metabolism. Science 2004;304:1805–7.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Girling P. Operational Risk Management. Hoboken, NJ: : John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2013.
An edited book
Navab N, Hornegger J, Wells WM, et al., editors. Medical Image Computing and Computer-Assisted Intervention -- MICCAI 2015: 18th International Conference, Munich, Germany, October 5-9, 2015, Proceedings, Part I. Cham: : Springer International Publishing 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
Alhadad N, Busnel Y, Serrano-Alvarado P, et al. Trust Evaluation of a System for an Activity with Subjective Logic. In: Eckert C, Katsikas SK, Pernul G, eds. Trust, Privacy, and Security in Digital Business: 11th International Conference, TrustBus 2014, Munich, Germany, September 2-3, 2014. Proceedings. Cham: : Springer International Publishing 2014. 48–59.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for BMJ Open Diabetes Research & Care.

Blog post
Fang J. Giant Tortoises Make An Adorable Comeback In The Galapagos. IFLScience. 2015. (accessed 30 Oct 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Digests of Decisions of the Comptroller General of the United States, Vol. IV, No. 6. Washington, DC: : U.S. Government Printing Office 1993.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hofmann TB. Adductor and abductor spasmodic dysphonia: A comparison of quality of life issues for those receiving Botox treatment. 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Saslow L. Nassau to Transfer 9 Parks And 12 Roads to Town. New York Times. 2007;:14LI2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBMJ Open Diabetes Research & Care
AbbreviationBMJ Open Diabetes Res. Care
ISSN (online)2052-4897

Other styles