How to format your references using the Biomedicine & Preventive Nutrition citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Biomedicine & Preventive Nutrition. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kuhl PK. Neuroscience. Who’s talking? Science 2011;333:529–30.
A journal article with 2 authors
Singh I, Rose N. Biomarkers in psychiatry. Nature 2009;460:202–7.
A journal article with 3 authors
Xiao Y, Jiang J, Huang H. Chemical dechlorination of hexachlorobenzene with polyethylene glycol and hydroxide: dominant effect of temperature and ionic potential. Sci Rep 2014;4:6305.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Switzer JA, Kothari HM, Poizot P, Nakanishi S, Bohannan EW. Enantiospecific electrodeposition of a chiral catalyst. Nature 2003;425:490–3.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Abdul-Rahman Y. The Art of RF (Riba-Free) Islamic Banking and Finance. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2014.
An edited book
Agrawal GK, Rakwal R, editors. Seed Development: OMICS Technologies toward Improvement of Seed Quality and Crop Yield: OMICS in Seed Biology. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
Zheng K, Zhang L, Xiang W, Wang W. Conclusion and Outlook. In: Zhang L, Xiang W, Wang W, editors. Heterogeneous Vehicular Networks, Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016, p. 79–82.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Biomedicine & Preventive Nutrition.

Blog post
Andrew E. Hedgehog Snoring Is The Cutest Thing You’ll Hear All Day. IFLScience 2014.’ll-hear-all-day/ (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. USDA Graduate School: Revenue Reporting Needs to Be Improved. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2001.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Woodard J. Emergent properties. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hollander S. A Sisterhood Lays a Foundation in Football. New York Times 2008:D2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBiomedicine & Preventive Nutrition
ISSN (print)2210-5239
ScopeFood Science

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