How to format your references using the Biomedicine & Preventive Nutrition citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Biomedicine & Preventive Nutrition. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Zerhouni E. Medicine. The NIH Roadmap. Science 2003;302:63–72.
A journal article with 2 authors
Lake JK, Ostling A. Comment on “Functional traits and niche-based tree community assembly in an Amazonian forest.” Science 2009;324:1015; author reply 1015.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kelber A, Balkenius A, Warrant EJ. Scotopic colour vision in nocturnal hawkmoths. Nature 2002;419:922–5.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Breiling A, Turner BM, Bianchi ME, Orlando V. General transcription factors bind promoters repressed by Polycomb group proteins. Nature 2001;412:651–5.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Padova T, Murdock KL. Adobe® Creative Suite® 5 Bible. Indianapolis, IN, USA: Wiley Publishing, Inc.; 2010.
An edited book
Boukas EK, Malhamé RP, editors. Analysis, Control and Optimization of Complex Dynamic Systems. Boston, MA: Springer US; 2005.
A chapter in an edited book
Costa G, Ramina A. Temperate Fruit Species. In: Dixon GR, Aldous DE, editors. Horticulture: Plants for People and Places, Volume 1: Production Horticulture, Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2014, p. 97–121.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Biomedicine & Preventive Nutrition.

Blog post
Fang J. Tooth Enamel Could Have Originated On Prehistoric Fish Scales. IFLScience 2015. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Rehabilitation Services: Administration of Grants to Human Services Training and Research Council. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1986.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Douglas L. Thermogravimetric and Raman Investigations on the Mechanism of Decomposition of Lead Compounds on Tungsten Surfaces. Doctoral dissertation. Southern Illinois University, 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Markoff J. Technologists Face Hurdles Before They Take Wheel. New York Times 2017:B4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBiomedicine & Preventive Nutrition
ISSN (print)2210-5239
ScopeFood Science

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