How to format your references using the Biology & Philosophy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Biology & Philosophy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Koen D (2005) Nuts and bolts. Online applications. Nature 433:90
A journal article with 2 authors
Haq BU, Schutter SR (2008) A chronology of Paleozoic sea-level changes. Science 322:64–68
A journal article with 3 authors
Spurný P, Oberst J, Heinlein D (2003) Photographic observations of Neuschwanstein, a second meteorite from the orbit of the Príbram chondrite. Nature 423:151–153
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Feng L, Yan H, Wu Z, et al (2007) Structure of a site-2 protease family intramembrane metalloprotease. Science 318:1608–1612

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Villalta T (2012) The Large-Cap Portfolio. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Lehner C, Renn J, Schemmel M (eds) (2012) Einstein and the Changing Worldviews of Physics. Birkhäuser, Boston, MA
A chapter in an edited book
Berezansky YM, Pulemyotov AD (2008) Image of a Jacobi Field. In: Ball JA, Eidelman Y, Helton JW, et al. (eds) Recent Advances in Matrix and Operator Theory. Birkhäuser, Basel, pp 47–62

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Biology & Philosophy.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) Daily Diary Reveals How Cannabis Use Affects People With Bipolar. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2016) Hazardous Materials Rail Shipments: Emergency Responders Receive Support, but DOT Could Improve Oversight of Information Sharing. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ithier-Guzman W (2010) Assessing the ability of soils and sediment to adsorb and retain cesium-137 in Puerto Rico. Doctoral dissertation, University of South Florida

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey G (2010) Jeter Could Leave the Yankees To Expand His Horizons, and Attire. New York Times B14

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Koen 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Koen 2005; Haq and Schutter 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Haq and Schutter 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Feng et al. 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleBiology & Philosophy
AbbreviationBiol. Philos.
ISSN (print)0169-3867
ISSN (online)1572-8404
ScopeGeneral Agricultural and Biological Sciences
History and Philosophy of Science

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