How to format your references using the Biology & Philosophy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Biology & Philosophy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Butt H-J (2011) Materials science. Controlling the flow of suspensions. Science 331:868–869
A journal article with 2 authors
Siemers BM, Schnitzler H-U (2004) Echolocation signals reflect niche differentiation in five sympatric congeneric bat species. Nature 429:657–661
A journal article with 3 authors
Thompson JK, Rainville S, Pritchard DE (2004) Cyclotron frequency shifts arising from polarization forces. Nature 430:58–61
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Asmerom Y, Cheng H, Thomas R, et al (2000) Melting of the Earth’s lithospheric mantle inferred from protactinium-thorium-uranium isotopic data. Nature 406:293–296

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hamdan M, Righetti PG (2005) Proteomics Today. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Antoniou G, Grobelnik M, Simperl E, et al (eds) (2011) The Semanic Web: Research and Applications: 8th Extended Semantic Web Conference, ESWC 2011, Heraklion, Crete, Greece, May 29 – June 2, 2011, Proceedings, Part II. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Shao L, Lu J, Shi M (2012) Miscellaneous Analogs. In: Lu J, Shi M (eds) Chemical Transformations of Vinylidenecyclopropanes. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 55–67

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Biology & Philosophy.

Blog post
Andrews R (2016) World’s First 3D-Printed Plane Unveiled By Airbus. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2007) Information Technology: VA and DOD Are Making Progress in Sharing Medical Information, but Are Far from Comprehensive Electronic Medical Records. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Breckenridge C (2017) Measuring Object and Attribute Salience in 2014 Illinois Gubernatorial Endorsements. Doctoral dissertation, Southern Illinois University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Saslow L (2005) At Museum Shops, Unusual Selections. New York Times 14LI12

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Butt 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Siemers and Schnitzler 2004; Butt 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Siemers and Schnitzler 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Asmerom et al. 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titleBiology & Philosophy
AbbreviationBiol. Philos.
ISSN (print)0169-3867
ISSN (online)1572-8404
ScopeGeneral Agricultural and Biological Sciences
History and Philosophy of Science

Other styles