How to format your references using the Biology & Philosophy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Biology & Philosophy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Eisenstein M (2015) Super-resolve me: from micro to nano. Nature 526:459–462
A journal article with 2 authors
Dekkers MPJ, Barde Y-A (2013) Developmental biology. Programmed cell death in neuronal development. Science 340:39–41
A journal article with 3 authors
Gratson GM, Xu M, Lewis JA (2004) Microperiodic structures: direct writing of three-dimensional webs. Nature 428:386
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Knittel J, Swaim JD, McAuslan DL, et al (2013) Back-scatter based whispering gallery mode sensing. Sci Rep 3:2974

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Fryirs KA, Brierley GJ (2012) Geomorphic Analysis of River Systems. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Hsu Y-S (ed) (2015) Development of Science Teachers’ TPACK: East Asian Practices. Springer, Singapore
A chapter in an edited book
Lone SH, Bhat KA, Khuroo MA (2015) Phytochemical Analysis and Chemobiological Standardization of Artemisia amygdalina. In: Bhat KA, Khuroo MA (eds) Chemical and Pharmacological Perspective of Artemisia amygdalina. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 25–37

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Biology & Philosophy.

Blog post
Davis J (2016) Young Lemurs Sing Out Of Sync With Their Parents To Get Noticed. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1992) Voice of America: Management Actions Needed to Adjust to a Changing Environment. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Plosky WD (2017) An Investment Case for Addressing Social Drivers of Structural Stigma and Discrimination Against Refugees in Resource-Poor Urban Areas. Doctoral dissertation, Columbia University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Billard M (2010) Yoga’s Serious. Except When It’s Not. New York Times E6

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Eisenstein 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Dekkers and Barde 2013; Eisenstein 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Dekkers and Barde 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Knittel et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleBiology & Philosophy
AbbreviationBiol. Philos.
ISSN (print)0169-3867
ISSN (online)1572-8404
ScopeGeneral Agricultural and Biological Sciences
History and Philosophy of Science

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