How to format your references using the Best Practice & Research Clinical Rheumatology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Best Practice & Research Clinical Rheumatology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
[1]
Murzin AG. Biochemistry. DNA building block reinvented. Science 2002;297:61–2.
A journal article with 2 authors
[1]
Levine M, Tjian R. Transcription regulation and animal diversity. Nature 2003;424:147–51.
A journal article with 3 authors
[1]
Lenton TM, Schellnhuber HJ, Szathmáry E. Climbing the co-evolution ladder. Nature 2004;431:913.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
[1]
Salehi-Ashtiani K, Lupták A, Litovchick A, Szostak JW. A genomewide search for ribozymes reveals an HDV-like sequence in the human CPEB3 gene. Science 2006;313:1788–92.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
[1]
King JA, Timacheff S. Digital Photography for Dummies®. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley Publishing, Inc.; 2008.
An edited book
[1]
Schur PH, Massarotti EM, editors. Lupus Erythematosus: Clinical Evaluation and Treatment. New York, NY: Springer; 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
[1]
Prins C, Bouchenoua S. A Memetic Algorithm Solving the VRP, the CARP and General Routing Problems with Nodes, Edges and Arcs. In: Hart WE, Smith JE, Krasnogor N, editors. Recent Advances in Memetic Algorithms, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2005, p. 65–85.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Best Practice & Research Clinical Rheumatology.

Blog post
[1]
Fang J. Cod Collapse Linked To Rapidly Warming Gulf Waters. IFLScience 2015.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
[1]
Government Accountability Office. Tactical Airlift: Issues Concerning Air Force Plans for Pacific Distribution System. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1989.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
[1]
McCafferty B. Chalk Talk. Doctoral dissertation. University of Maryland, College Park, 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
[1]
Kolomatsky M. July’s Most Popular Listings. New York Times 2017:RE2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBest Practice & Research Clinical Rheumatology
AbbreviationBest Pract. Res. Clin. Rheumatol.
ISSN (print)1521-6942
ScopeRheumatology

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