How to format your references using the Best Practice & Research Clinical Rheumatology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Best Practice & Research Clinical Rheumatology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
[1]
Benford G. Where might it lead? Nature 2001;414:399.
A journal article with 2 authors
[1]
Hopkins R, Rausher MD. Pollinator-mediated selection on flower color allele drives reinforcement. Science 2012;335:1090–2.
A journal article with 3 authors
[1]
Fay JC, Wyckoff GJ, Wu C-I. Testing the neutral theory of molecular evolution with genomic data from Drosophila. Nature 2002;415:1024–6.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
[1]
Heller DA, Jeng ES, Yeung T-K, Martinez BM, Moll AE, Gastala JB, et al. Optical detection of DNA conformational polymorphism on single-walled carbon nanotubes. Science 2006;311:508–11.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
[1]
O’Neil PV. Beginning Partial Differential Equations. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2008.
An edited book
[1]
Ésik Z, editor. Computer Science Logic: 20th International Workshop, CSL 2006, 15th Annual Conference of the EACSL, Szeged, Hungary, September 25-29, 2006. Proceedings. vol. 4207. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2006.
A chapter in an edited book
[1]
Shimomura Y, Watanabe K, Akasaka F, Kimita K. Fan Out of Japanese Service Engineering - the State of the Art -. In: Hesselbach J, Herrmann C, editors. Functional Thinking for Value Creation: Proceedings of the 3rd CIRP International Conference on Industrial Product Service Systems, Technische Universität Braunschweig, Braunschweig, Germany, May 5th - 6th, 2011, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2011, p. 15–20.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Best Practice & Research Clinical Rheumatology.

Blog post
[1]
Carpineti A. A Potential Answer To Why Life Needs Water. IFLScience 2016. https://www.iflscience.com/health-and-medicine/a-potential-answer-to-why-life-needs-water/ (accessed October 30, 2018).

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
[1]
Government Accountability Office. Parent and Supplemental Student Loans: Volume and Default Trends for Fiscal Years 1989 to 1991. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1992.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
[1]
Blandin NM. Re-conceptualizing leadership for an era of complexity and uncertainty: A case study of leadership in a complex adaptive system. Doctoral dissertation. George Washington University, 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
[1]
Crow K. 3-Card Monte Is Vanishing, Just Like Your $50 Bill Did. New York Times 2001:146.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBest Practice & Research Clinical Rheumatology
AbbreviationBest Pract. Res. Clin. Rheumatol.
ISSN (print)1521-6942
ScopeRheumatology

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