How to format your references using the Best Practice & Research Clinical Rheumatology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Best Practice & Research Clinical Rheumatology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:


PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
[1]
Aharonian F. The very-high-energy gamma-ray sky. Science 2007;315:70–2.
A journal article with 2 authors
[1]
Conte MH, Weber JC. Plant biomarkers in aerosols record isotopic discrimination of terrestrial photosynthesis. Nature 2002;417:639–41.
A journal article with 3 authors
[1]
Bertet C, Sulak L, Lecuit T. Myosin-dependent junction remodelling controls planar cell intercalation and axis elongation. Nature 2004;429:667–71.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
[1]
Wisotzki L, Bacon R, Brinchmann J, Cantalupo S, Richter P, Schaye J, et al. Nearly all the sky is covered by Lyman-α emission around high-redshift galaxies. Nature 2018;562:229–32.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
[1]
Crane L. Knowledge and Discourse Matters. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc; 2015.
An edited book
[1]
Karthik M. Computational Strategies Towards Improved Protein Function Prophecy of Xylanases from Thermomyces lanuginosus. New York, NY: Springer; 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
[1]
Hurst CS, Eby LT. Mentoring in Organizations: Mentor or Tormentor? In: Reilly NP, Sirgy MJ, Gorman CA, editors. Work and Quality of Life: Ethical Practices in Organizations, Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2012, p. 81–94.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Best Practice & Research Clinical Rheumatology.

Blog post
[1]
Andrew D. Masters of Disguise: Top 25 Camouflaged Animals. IFLScience 2014. https://www.iflscience.com/plants-and-animals/masters-disguise-top-25-camouflaged-animals/ (accessed October 30, 2018).

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
[1]
Government Accountability Office. Meeting the Aging Aircraft Challenge: Status and Opportunities. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1989.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
[1]
Holmstedt C. Low voltage switched-current cell and its application. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach, 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
[1]
Casey N. Peace Is New Test for Colombian Coca Farmers. New York Times 2017:A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBest Practice & Research Clinical Rheumatology
AbbreviationBest Pract. Res. Clin. Rheumatol.
ISSN (print)1521-6942
ScopeRheumatology

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