How to format your references using the Best Practice & Research Clinical Rheumatology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Best Practice & Research Clinical Rheumatology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
[1]
Gasse F. Paleoclimate. Hydrological changes in Africa. Science 2001;292:2259–60.
A journal article with 2 authors
[1]
Arim M, Barbosa O. Humped pattern of diversity: fact or artifact? Science 2002;297:1763; discussion 1763.
A journal article with 3 authors
[1]
Reynolds JN, Hyland BI, Wickens JR. A cellular mechanism of reward-related learning. Nature 2001;413:67–70.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
[1]
Carlsbecker A, Lee J-Y, Roberts CJ, Dettmer J, Lehesranta S, Zhou J, et al. Cell signalling by microRNA165/6 directs gene dose-dependent root cell fate. Nature 2010;465:316–21.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
[1]
Castañeda LB, Arunachalam V, Dharmaraja S. Introduction to Probability and Stochastic Processes with Applications. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2012.
An edited book
[1]
Rozenblat C, Melançon G, editors. Methods for Multilevel Analysis and Visualisation of Geographical Networks. vol. 11. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
[1]
Rosenthal E, Flexer A, Möller P. The hydrochemical history of the Rift. In: Hötzl H, Möller P, Rosenthal E, editors. The Water of the Jordan Valley: Scarcity and Deterioration of Groundwater and its Impact on the Regional Development, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2009, p. 75–82.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Best Practice & Research Clinical Rheumatology.

Blog post
[1]
Fang J. New Solar Efficiency World Record Set. IFLScience 2014. https://www.iflscience.com/technology/researchers-set-new-solar-efficiency-world-record/ (accessed October 30, 2018).

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
[1]
Government Accountability Office. Air Traffic Control: Justifications for Capital Investments Need Strengthening. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1993.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
[1]
Keels D. An Analysis of the Correlation between Teacher Effectiveness and Student Standardized Test Scores. Doctoral dissertation. University of Phoenix, 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
[1]
Dynarski S. To Gain a College Student, Eliminate a Form. New York Times 2015:BU6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBest Practice & Research Clinical Rheumatology
AbbreviationBest Pract. Res. Clin. Rheumatol.
ISSN (print)1521-6942
ScopeRheumatology

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