How to format your references using the Best Practice & Research Clinical Rheumatology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Best Practice & Research Clinical Rheumatology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Nilsen TW. Molecular biology. Internal mRNA methylation finally finds functions. Science 2014;343:1207–8.
A journal article with 2 authors
Prejean SG, Haney MM. Geophysics. Shaking up volcanoes. Science 2014;345:39.
A journal article with 3 authors
Krumholz MR, McKee CF, Klein RI. The formation of stars by gravitational collapse rather than competitive accretion. Nature 2005;438:332–4.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Chen X, Dam MA, Ono K, Mal A, Shen H, Nutt SR, et al. A thermally re-mendable cross-linked polymeric material. Science 2002;295:1698–702.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Minei I, Lucek J. MPLS-Enabled Applications. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2006.
An edited book
Petsche H-J, Lewis AC, Liesen J, Russ S, editors. From Past to Future: Graßmann’s Work in Context: Graßmann Bicentennial Conference, September 2009. Basel: Springer; 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
Lundgren UP. Education and the Welfare Society. In: Wikander L, Gustafsson C, Riis U, editors. Enlightenment, Creativity and Education: Polities, Politics, Performances, Rotterdam: SensePublishers; 2012, p. 61–77.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Best Practice & Research Clinical Rheumatology.

Blog post
Carpineti A. An Ancient Peruvian Mystery Has Been Solved From Space. IFLScience 2016. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s Acquisition and Utilization of T-38 Jet Aircraft. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1971.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ballan AO. The selfie generation: Students’ perceptions of classroom incivility in social work education. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach, 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
McKINLEY JC Jr. After Scrutiny, Vance Returned $32,000 to Trump Lawyer. New York Times 2017:A20.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBest Practice & Research Clinical Rheumatology
AbbreviationBest Pract. Res. Clin. Rheumatol.
ISSN (print)1521-6942

Other styles