How to format your references using the Best Practice & Research Clinical Obstetrics & Gynaecology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Best Practice & Research Clinical Obstetrics & Gynaecology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Koen D. Nuts and bolts. Totally stumped? Nature 2004;431:722.
A journal article with 2 authors
Temeles EJ, Kress WJ. Adaptation in a plant-hummingbird association. Science 2003;300:630–3.
A journal article with 3 authors
Acquisti C, Kleffe J, Collins S. Oxygen content of transmembrane proteins over macroevolutionary time scales. Nature 2007;445:47–52.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Collin D, Ritort F, Jarzynski C, Smith SB, Tinoco I Jr, Bustamante C. Verification of the Crooks fluctuation theorem and recovery of RNA folding free energies. Nature 2005;437:231–4.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Teodorescu P, Stănescu N-D, Pandrea N. Numerical Analysis with Applications in Mechanics and Engineering. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2013.
An edited book
Schutz A. Collected Papers V. Phenomenology and the Social Sciences. vol. 205. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
Paskett ED. Breast Cancer Among Special Populations: Disparities in Care Across the Cancer Control Continuum. In: Ganz PA, editor. Improving Outcomes for Breast Cancer Survivors: Perspectives on Research Challenges and Opportunities, Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015, p. 39–52.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Best Practice & Research Clinical Obstetrics & Gynaecology.

Blog post
Evans K. Architects Create Free DIY Sustainable “Indoor Garden” For Urban Living. IFLScience 2017. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Additional Cost Transparency and Design Criteria Needed for National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Projects. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2011.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Valley MT. Deciphering the function of granule cell interneurons in the mouse main olfactory bulb: Insights from adult neurogenesis and local-field potentials. Doctoral dissertation. Columbia University, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Paulson M. Broadway at Midnight: ‘A Doll’s House, Part 2.’ New York Times 2017:C2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBest Practice & Research Clinical Obstetrics & Gynaecology
AbbreviationBest Pract. Res. Clin. Obstet. Gynaecol.
ISSN (print)1521-6934
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Obstetrics and Gynaecology

Other styles