How to format your references using the Best Practice & Research Clinical Obstetrics & Gynaecology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Best Practice & Research Clinical Obstetrics & Gynaecology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Young OR. Governance: A peaceful Arctic. Nature 2011;478:180–1.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kenyon SJ, Bromley BC. Stellar encounters as the origin of distant Solar System objects in highly eccentric orbits. Nature 2004;432:598–602.
A journal article with 3 authors
Peumans P, Uchida S, Forrest SR. Efficient bulk heterojunction photovoltaic cells using small-molecular-weight organic thin films. Nature 2003;425:158–62.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Bianco A, Poukkula M, Cliffe A, Mathieu J, Luque CM, Fulga TA, et al. Two distinct modes of guidance signalling during collective migration of border cells. Nature 2007;448:362–5.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Tannenbaum LV. Alternative Ecological Risk Assessment. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2013.
An edited book
Krishnaraj V. Drilling of Polymer-Matrix Composites. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
Krüger R, Stumpf A. Understanding Growth Barriers. In: Stumpf A, editor. Brand Growth Barriers: Identify, Understand, and Overcome Them, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2013, p. 51–74.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Best Practice & Research Clinical Obstetrics & Gynaecology.

Blog post
Andrew E. New Research Shows How To Trap Cancer By Turning Your Body Against The Tumour. IFLScience 2015. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Transportation Worker Identification Credential: Card Reader Pilot Results Are Unreliable; Security Benefits Should Be Reassessed. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2013.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Nakayama M. Educational Advocacy for Children in Foster Care: A Grant Proposal. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Sánchez Y. Goliath Opens His Wallet. New York Times 2014:A35.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBest Practice & Research Clinical Obstetrics & Gynaecology
AbbreviationBest Pract. Res. Clin. Obstet. Gynaecol.
ISSN (print)1521-6934
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Obstetrics and Gynaecology

Other styles