How to format your references using the Best Practice & Research Clinical Gastroenterology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Best Practice & Research Clinical Gastroenterology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gewin V. In search of the élite. Nature 2003;426:713–7.
A journal article with 2 authors
Yang T, Shadlen MN. Probabilistic reasoning by neurons. Nature 2007;447:1075–80.
A journal article with 3 authors
McCormick MI, Watson S-A, Munday PL. Ocean acidification reverses competition for space as habitats degrade. Sci Rep 2013;3:3280.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Zhou Z, Luo MJ, Straesser K, Katahira J, Hurt E, Reed R. The protein Aly links pre-messenger-RNA splicing to nuclear export in metazoans. Nature 2000;407:401–5.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bartley T. Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy for Cancer. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2011.
An edited book
Lowery C, Walker A, Thomas C, editors. Un-Democratic Acts: New Departures for Dialogues in Society and Schools. Rotterdam: SensePublishers; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Kutnick P, Blatchford P. SPRinG at Key Stage 1: Effective Group Work with Young Children. In: Blatchford P, editor. Effective Group Work in Primary School Classrooms: The SPRinG Approach, Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2014, p. 81–101.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Best Practice & Research Clinical Gastroenterology.

Blog post
Andrews R. The World’s Only Sample Of Metallic Hydrogen Just Vanished. IFLScience 2017. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Smart Highways: Challenges Facing DOT’s Intelligent Vehicle Highway Systems Program. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1994.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Munchel BF. Exploratory Study of Counseling Professionals’ Attitudes Toward Distance Clinical Supervision. Doctoral dissertation. University of South Florida, 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Grynbaum MM. Another Press Secretary Profile. New York Times 2017:A2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBest Practice & Research Clinical Gastroenterology
AbbreviationBest Pract. Res. Clin. Gastroenterol.
ISSN (print)1521-6918

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