How to format your references using the Best Practice & Research Clinical Gastroenterology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Best Practice & Research Clinical Gastroenterology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Littlewood P. Physics. Condensates made of light. Science 2007;316:989–90.
A journal article with 2 authors
Abraham RG, van Den Bergh S. The morphological evolution of galaxies. Science 2001;293:1273–8.
A journal article with 3 authors
Montrose K, Yang Y, Krissansen GW. The tetrapeptide core of the carrier peptide Xentry is cell-penetrating: novel activatable forms of Xentry. Sci Rep 2014;4:4900.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Cecconi C, Shank EA, Bustamante C, Marqusee S. Direct observation of the three-state folding of a single protein molecule. Science 2005;309:2057–60.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Pachamanova DA, Fabozzi FJ. Simulation and Optimization in Finance. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2010.
An edited book
Benediktovich A. Theoretical Concepts of X-Ray Nanoscale Analysis: Theory and Applications. vol. 183. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
Jarecki L. Kinetic Theory of Crystal Nucleation Under Transient Molecular Orientation. In: Reiter G, Strobl GR, editors. Progress in Understanding of Polymer Crystallization, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2007, p. 65–86.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Best Practice & Research Clinical Gastroenterology.

Blog post
Davis J. Newly Discovered Oldest Human Fossils Push Our Origin Back By 100,000 Years. IFLScience 2017. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Office of Education Should Improve Procedures To Recover Defaulted Loans Under the Guaranteed Student Loan Program. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1971.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Jang SH. Interpretation of extended techniques in unaccompanied flute works by East-Asian composers: Isang Yun, Toru Takemitsu, and Kazuo Fukushima. Doctoral dissertation. University of Cincinnati, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly K. A Month With Mom In Eire; A Month With Mom in Ireland. New York Times 1975:Travel And ResortsXX1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBest Practice & Research Clinical Gastroenterology
AbbreviationBest Pract. Res. Clin. Gastroenterol.
ISSN (print)1521-6918

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