How to format your references using the Best Practice & Research Clinical Anaesthesiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Best Practice & Research Clinical Anaesthesiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lake JA. Evidence for an early prokaryotic endosymbiosis. Nature 2009;460:967–71.
A journal article with 2 authors
Dauphas N, Kasting JF. Low pCO2 in the pore water, not in the Archean air. Nature 2011;474:E2-3; discussion E4-5.
A journal article with 3 authors
Finkel T, Serrano M, Blasco MA. The common biology of cancer and ageing. Nature 2007;448:767–74.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Feldberg K, Schneider H, Stadler T, Schäfer-Verwimp A, Schmidt AR, Heinrichs J. Epiphytic leafy liverworts diversified in angiosperm-dominated forests. Sci Rep 2014;4:5974.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Glaser R. Symmetry, Spectroscopy, and Crystallography. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2015.
An edited book
Azuma J, Schaffer SW, Ito T, editors. Taurine 7. vol. 643. New York, NY: Springer; 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
Suzuki O. Detection methods. In: Watanabe K, editor. Drugs and Poisons in Humans: A Handbook of Practical Analysis, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2005, p. 33–43.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Best Practice & Research Clinical Anaesthesiology.

Blog post
Andrews R. Mechanical Sea Snakes Could Be The Terrifying Future Of Underwater Exploration. IFLScience 2016. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. November 1988 Internet Computer Virus and the Vulnerability of National Telecommunications Networks to Computer Viruses. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1989.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Warren SM. The leadership process: An analysis of follower influence on leader behavior in hospital organizations. Doctoral dissertation. Pepperdine University, 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Fausset R. Black Man’s Shooting Recalls Southern Wounds. New York Times 2016:A10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBest Practice & Research Clinical Anaesthesiology
AbbreviationBest Pract. Res. Clin. Anaesthesiol.
ISSN (print)1521-6896
ScopeAnesthesiology and Pain Medicine

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