How to format your references using the Best Practice & Research Clinical Anaesthesiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Best Practice & Research Clinical Anaesthesiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hamann T. Chemistry. Perovskites take lead in solar hydrogen race. Science 2014;345:1566–7.
A journal article with 2 authors
Prakash M, Gershenfeld N. Microfluidic bubble logic. Science 2007;315:832–5.
A journal article with 3 authors
Umari P, Mosconi E, De Angelis F. Relativistic GW calculations on CH3NH3PbI3 and CH3NH3SnI3 perovskites for solar cell applications. Sci Rep 2014;4:4467.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Pyzalla A, Camin B, Buslaps T, Di Michiel M, Kaminski H, Kottar A, et al. Simultaneous tomography and diffraction analysis of creep damage. Science 2005;308:92–5.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
O’Malley C. Bonds Without Borders. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2014.
An edited book
Rehm G, Uszkoreit H, editors. The French Language in the Digital Age. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
Kaliszewski I, Miroforidis J. Multiple Criteria Decision Making: Efficient Outcome Assessments with Evolutionary Optimization. In: Shi Y, Wang S, Peng Y, Li J, Zeng Y, editors. Cutting-Edge Research Topics on Multiple Criteria Decision Making: 20th International Conference, MCDM 2009, Chengdu/Jiuzhaigou, China, June 21-26, 2009. Proceedings, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2009, p. 25–8.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Best Practice & Research Clinical Anaesthesiology.

Blog post
Andrews R. Two Colossal Blobs Of Molten Rock Are Hiding Under Africa And The Pacific Ocean. IFLScience 2016. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Drug Control: Status of Plan to Use Federal Research and Development Facilities. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1989.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Dolan DJ. Structural Evolution of Martin Crater Thaumasia Planum, Mars. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner J. Hot Stove Warms Up: Cespedes Opts Out of Deal. New York Times 2016:SP2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBest Practice & Research Clinical Anaesthesiology
AbbreviationBest Pract. Res. Clin. Anaesthesiol.
ISSN (print)1521-6896
ScopeAnesthesiology and Pain Medicine

Other styles