How to format your references using the Bacteriophage citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Bacteriophage. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Yablokov A. Academy “reform” is stifling Russian science. Nature 2014; 511:7.
A journal article with 2 authors
Miller MW, Williams ES. Prion disease: horizontal prion transmission in mule deer. Nature 2003; 425:35–6.
A journal article with 3 authors
Healy D, Jones RR, Holdsworth RE. Three-dimensional brittle shear fracturing by tensile crack interaction. Nature 2006; 439:64–7.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Jaramillo TF, Jørgensen KP, Bonde J, Nielsen JH, Horch S, Chorkendorff I. Identification of active edge sites for electrochemical H2 evolution from MoS2 nanocatalysts. Science 2007; 317:100–2.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Joyner M. Integration Marketing. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2009.
An edited book
Rao MM. Probability Theory with Applications. Second Edition. Boston, MA: Springer US; 2006.
A chapter in an edited book
Jaffe N, Pearson MG. Wilms’ Tumor. In: Chan KW, Raney RB, editors. Pediatric Oncology. Boston, MA: Springer US; 2005. page 70–81.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Bacteriophage.

Blog post
Davis J. BMW Plan to Integrate Street Lights with Electric Car Charging Points [Internet]. IFLScience2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]; Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Transportation Services: Better Dissemination and Oversight of DOT’s Guidance Could Lead to Improved Access for Limited English-Proficient Populations (Korean Version). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2005.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Liao W. The epitope specificity of the human anti-Candida albicans antibody M1g1. 2010;

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Yablonsky L. A Vote for Small. New York Times2012; :ST3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleBacteriophage
ISSN (print)2159-7073
ISSN (online)2159-7081

Other styles