How to format your references using the Bacteriophage citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Bacteriophage. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Weeks ER. Materials science. Melting colloidal crystals from the inside out. Science 2012; 338:55–6.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kormendy J, Bender R. Supermassive black holes do not correlate with dark matter haloes of galaxies. Nature 2011; 469:377–80.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ruff CC, Ugazio G, Fehr E. Changing social norm compliance with noninvasive brain stimulation. Science 2013; 342:482–4.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Shin J, Bossenz M, Chung Y, Ma H, Byron M, Taniguchi-Ishigaki N, Zhu X, Jiao B, Hall LL, Green MR, et al. Maternal Rnf12/RLIM is required for imprinted X-chromosome inactivation in mice. Nature 2010; 467:977–81.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Marsh N. Forensic Photography. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2014.
An edited book
Silverman BG, Jain A, Ichalkaranje A, Jain LC, editors. Intelligent Paradigms for Healthcare Enterprises. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2005.
A chapter in an edited book
Shandas V. Socio-Ecological Context of Salmonids in the City. In: Yeakley JA, Maas-Hebner KG, Hughes RM, editors. Wild Salmonids in the Urbanizing Pacific Northwest. New York, NY: Springer; 2014. page 47–57.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Bacteriophage.

Blog post
Hale T. Thousands Of Dying Fish Flood A Canal In New York. IFLScience2016;


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Improving the Collection of Debts Owed the Government. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1981.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Joppy DA. Principal Socialization in One Virginia School District: A Phenomenological Investigation. 2013;

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow K. What Rhymes With Asbestos? An Urban Musical in Three Acts. New York Times2000; :148.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleBacteriophage
ISSN (print)2159-7073
ISSN (online)2159-7081

Other styles