How to format your references using the Australian Dental Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Australian Dental Journal (ADJ). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lee R. The outlook for population growth. Science 2011;333:569–73.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hamanaka RB, Chandel NS. Cell biology. Warburg effect and redox balance. Science 2011;334:1219–20.
A journal article with 3 authors
Milinski M, Semmann D, Krambeck H-J. Reputation helps solve the ‘tragedy of the commons’. Nature 2002;415:424–6.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Jiang Y, Choi WH, Lee JH, Han DH, Kim JH, Chung Y-S, et al. A neurostimulant para-chloroamphetamine inhibits the arginylation branch of the N-end rule pathway. Sci Rep 2014;4:6344.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Spiegel R. Psychopharmacology. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2005.
An edited book
Aurum A, Wohlin C, eds. Engineering and Managing Software Requirements. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2005.
A chapter in an edited book
Szabo A. Interplanetary Discontinuities and Shocks in the Earth’s Magnetosheath. In: Sauvaud J-A, Němeček Z, eds. Multiscale Processes in the Earth’s Magnetosphere: From Interball to Cluster. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2005:57–71. (NATO Science Series II: Mathematics, Physics and Chemistry).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Australian Dental Journal.

Blog post
Fang J. Earliest Evidence of Limb Regeneration Found in 300-Million-Year-Old Fossils [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Federal Research: Advanced Technology Program’s Indirect Cost Rates and Program Evaluation Status. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1993 Sep. Report No.: RCED-93-221.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Barnett J. Understanding gender differences in teachers’ level of insight as it relates to ADHD [Doctoral dissertation]. [Minneapolis, MN]: Capella University; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow K. The Bunker, an Orphan, Finds a Temporary Home. New York Times. 2002;144.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleAustralian Dental Journal
ISSN (print)0045-0421
ISSN (online)1834-7819

Other styles