How to format your references using the Australian Academic & Research Libraries citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Australian Academic & Research Libraries. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hötzel, M. J. 2000. “Achievers Should Stay to Aid Brazilian Science.” Nature 407 (6806): 834.
A journal article with 2 authors
Solanki, Sami K., and Natalie A. Krivova. 2011. “Astronomy. Analyzing Solar Cycles.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 334 (6058): 916–917.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lacetera, Nicola, Mario Macis, and Robert Slonim. 2013. “Public Health. Economic Rewards to Motivate Blood Donations.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 340 (6135): 927–928.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Liu, Yang, Caiyan Lu, Stephen Twigg, Mehdi Ghaffari, Junhong Lin, Nicholas Winograd, and Q. M. Zhang. 2013. “Direct Observation of Ion Distributions near Electrodes in Ionic Polymer Actuators Containing Ionic Liquids.” Scientific Reports 3: 973.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Walker, Mark. 2013. Happy-People-Pills For All. Oxford, UK: Wiley Blackwell.
An edited book
Kaskutas, Lee Anne, and Marc Galanter, eds. 2008. Recent Developments in Alcoholism: Research on Alcoholics Anonymous and Spirituality in Addiction Recovery. Vol. 18. Recent Developments in Alcoholism. New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Lakhani, Amit D., Erica Y. Yang, Brian Matthews, Ian Johnson, Syed Naqvi, and Gheorghe Cosmin Silaghi. 2007. “Threat Analysis and Attacks on XtreemOS: A Grid–Enabled Operating System.” In Towards Next Generation Grids: Proceedings of the CoreGRID Symposium 2007, edited by Thierry Priol and Marco Vanneschi, 53–62. Boston, MA: Springer US.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Australian Academic & Research Libraries.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2016. “Will Taxpayers Foot The Cleanup Bill For Bankrupt Coal Companies?” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2009. Aviation Safety: Better Data and Targeted FAA Efforts Needed to Identify and Address Safety Issues of Small Air Cargo Carriers. GAO-09-614. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Peterson, G. Greg. 2013. “Long-Term Effects of Care Management on Mortality, Hospitalizations, and Medicare Costs Among Chronically-Ill Medicare Beneficiaries.” Doctoral dissertation, Washington, DC: George Washington University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
MacFARQUHAR, Neil, and Andrew E. Kramer. 2014. “As the Ruble Swoons, Russians Desperately Shop.” New York Times, December 17.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Hötzel 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Hötzel 2000; Solanki and Krivova 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Solanki and Krivova 2011)
  • Three authors: (Lacetera, Macis, and Slonim 2013)
  • 4 or more authors: (Liu et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleAustralian Academic & Research Libraries
ISSN (print)0004-8623
ISSN (online)1839-471X
ScopeLibrary and Information Sciences

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