How to format your references using the Australian Academic & Research Libraries citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Australian Academic & Research Libraries. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Snow, Robert W. 2004. “The Invisible Victims.” Nature 430 (7002): 934–935.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kronenberg, Mitchell, and Wendy L. Havran. 2014. “Immunology: Oiling the Wheels of Autoimmunity.” Nature 506 (7486): 42–43.
A journal article with 3 authors
Chandra, Fiona A., Gentian Buzi, and John C. Doyle. 2011. “Glycolytic Oscillations and Limits on Robust Efficiency.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 333 (6039): 187–192.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Freeman, C., N. Fenner, N. J. Ostle, H. Kang, D. J. Dowrick, B. Reynolds, M. A. Lock, D. Sleep, S. Hughes, and J. Hudson. 2004. “Export of Dissolved Organic Carbon from Peatlands under Elevated Carbon Dioxide Levels.” Nature 430 (6996): 195–198.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Razik, Hubert. 2013. Handbook of Asynchronous Machine with Variable Speed. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Penfold, Philip L., and Jan M. Provis, eds. 2005. Macular Degeneration. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Conti, Nicolò, and Vincenzo Memoli. 2016. “A Specific Profile: The Internet Users.” In Citizens, Europe and the Media: Have New Media Made Citizens More Eurosceptical?, edited by Vincenzo Memoli, 69–83. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Australian Academic & Research Libraries.

Blog post
Fang, Janet. 2014. “Giant Tortoises Bounce Back!” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2007. Transportation Security: DHS Efforts to Eliminate Redundant Background Check Investigations. GAO-07-756. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hernandez, Silvia Sofia. 2013. “Professionals’ Perceptions of Effective Interventions with Elderly Hoarders.” Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Dominus, Susan. 2017. “Not Just Us.” New York Times, May 11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Snow 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Snow 2004; Kronenberg and Havran 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Kronenberg and Havran 2014)
  • Three authors: (Chandra, Buzi, and Doyle 2011)
  • 4 or more authors: (Freeman et al. 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleAustralian Academic & Research Libraries
ISSN (print)0004-8623
ISSN (online)1839-471X
ScopeLibrary and Information Sciences

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