How to format your references using the Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Vedral V (2012) Physics. Moving beyond trust in quantum computing. Science 335:294–295
A journal article with 2 authors
Rieseberg LH, Livingstone K (2003) Evolution. Chromosomal speciation in primates. Science 300:267–268
A journal article with 3 authors
Goes S, Capitanio FA, Morra G (2008) Evidence of lower-mantle slab penetration phases in plate motions. Nature 451:981–984
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Tsoi M, Jansen AG, Bass J, et al (2000) Generation and detection of phase-coherent current-driven magnons in magnetic multilayers. Nature 406:46–48

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hollin CR (2016) The Psychology of Interpersonal Violence. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Královič R, Niwiński D (2009) Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science 2009: 34th International Symposium, MFCS 2009, Novy Smokovec, High Tatras, Slovakia, August 24-28, 2009. Proceedings. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Hu Z, Hu Z (2013) Production Functions with Electricity: The Industrial Level. In: Hu Z (ed) Electricity Economics: Production Functions with Electricity. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 107–138

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) MDMA Investigated as Treatment for Social Anxiety in Autistic Adults. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1995) Job Corps: High Costs and Mixed Results Raise Questions About Program’s Effectiveness. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Nguyen HT (2013) The ugly duckling: Juvenile delinquents in non-delinquent networks. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Yablonsky L (2012) Spacewalk. New York Times ST3

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleAustralasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine
AbbreviationAustralas. Phys. Eng. Sci. Med.
ISSN (print)0158-9938
ISSN (online)1879-5447
Biomedical Engineering
Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging

Other styles