How to format your references using the Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine (Australas Phys Eng Sci Med). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Davis RJ (2012) Cell biology. A scaffold switch to insulate. Science 337:1178–1179
A journal article with 2 authors
Adams J, Loach T (2015) Comment: A well-connected world. Nature 527:S58-9
A journal article with 3 authors
Roy S, Hsiung F, Kornberg TB (2011) Specificity of Drosophila cytonemes for distinct signaling pathways. Science 332:354–358
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Ley RE, Turnbaugh PJ, Klein S, Gordon JI (2006) Microbial ecology: human gut microbes associated with obesity. Nature 444:1022–1023

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Anwar S, Carroll JJ (2016) Carbon Dioxide Thermodynamic Properties Handbook. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Davis J, Ramon J (2015) Inductive Logic Programming: 24th International Conference, ILP 2014, Nancy, France, September 14-16, 2014, Revised Selected Papers. Springer International Publishing, Cham
A chapter in an edited book
Hutchinson TA, Brawer JR (2011) The Challenge of Medical Dichotomies and the Congruent Physician–Patient Relationship in Medicine. In: Hutchinson TA (ed) Whole Person Care: A New Paradigm for the 21st Century. Springer, New York, NY, pp 31–43

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) Time To Take A Sick Day: Working When Ill Is Bad For You – And Your Company. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2012) Telecommunications: FCC Has Reformed the High-Cost Program, but Oversight and Management Could be Improved. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Jorge MH (2004) Relationships Among Poverty, Financial Services, Human Capital, Risk Coping, and Natural Resources: Evidence from El Salvador and Bolivia. Doctoral dissertation, Ohio State University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kanter J (2017) E.U. Leader Urges Simplifying Bloc. New York Times A8

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 1].
This sentence cites four references [1, 1, 1, 1].

About the journal

Full journal titleAustralasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine
AbbreviationAustralas. Phys. Eng. Sci. Med.
ISSN (print)0158-9938
ISSN (online)1879-5447
Biomedical Engineering
Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging

Other styles