How to format your references using the Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Pentland A (2015) Economics: Simple market models fail the test. Nature 525:190–191
A journal article with 2 authors
Rieux-Laucat F, Casanova J-L (2014) Immunology. Autoimmunity by haploinsufficiency. Science 345:1560–1561
A journal article with 3 authors
Maurer SM, Firestone RB, Scriver CR (2000) Science’s neglected legacy. Nature 405:117–120
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Choi YJ, Chae S, Kim JH, et al (2013) Neurotoxic amyloid beta oligomeric assemblies recreated in microfluidic platform with interstitial level of slow flow. Sci Rep 3:1921

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hoffmann K (2005) System Integration. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Matsagar V (2015) Advances in Structural Engineering: Materials, Volume Three. Springer India, New Delhi
A chapter in an edited book
Clark S (2014) Blood in the Water (Transcript of Discussion). In: Christianson B, Malcolm J (eds) Security Protocols XVIII: 18th International Workshop, Cambridge, UK, March 24-26, 2010, Revised Selected Papers. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 18–24

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) The Secret Maoist Chinese Operation That Conquered Malaria – And Won A Nobel. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1989) Truck Safety: Implementation of the Single Driver’s License and Notification Requirements. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Yang Y (2003) Statistical Analysis of cDNA Microarrays: A Systematic Approach to Identify MTF-1 Mediated Gene Expression Profile in Response to Cadmium. Doctoral dissertation, University of Cincinnati

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Rosenthal BM (2017) ‘Tough Cop’ Running for Mayor Is Accused of Pushing Limits. New York Times A1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleAustralasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine
AbbreviationAustralas. Phys. Eng. Sci. Med.
ISSN (print)0158-9938
ISSN (online)1879-5447
Biomedical Engineering
Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging

Other styles