How to format your references using the Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Joppa LN (2009) Journal club. An ecologist calls for a citizen-science “Wiki.” Nature 459:619
A journal article with 2 authors
Johnson CL, Spence AM (2011) Epigenetic licensing of germline gene expression by maternal RNA in C. elegans. Science 333:1311–1314
A journal article with 3 authors
Vander Heiden MG, Cantley LC, Thompson CB (2009) Understanding the Warburg effect: the metabolic requirements of cell proliferation. Science 324:1029–1033
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Ushioda R, Hoseki J, Araki K, et al (2008) ERdj5 is required as a disulfide reductase for degradation of misfolded proteins in the ER. Science 321:569–572

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Peinado AM, Segura JC (2006) Speech Recognition Over Digital Channels. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Liu Z, Xia CH (2008) Performance Modeling and Engineering. Springer US, Boston, MA
A chapter in an edited book
Marcon C, Mancin M (2016) Empirical Evidence on Current Integrated Reporting Practices. In: Mio C (ed) Integrated Reporting: A New Accounting Disclosure. Palgrave Macmillan UK, London, pp 59–79

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine.

Blog post
Hamilton K (2016) Can Monkeys Have Autism? The Answer Could Help Us Understand What Causes The Condition. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1980) Review of the Battlefield Exploitation and Target Acquisition System. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
O’Grady CR (2009) Journeys of our ancestors: Conservation science approaches to the analysis of cultural material. Doctoral dissertation, University of Arizona

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Schwartz J (2016) Counting Green: How to Measure Your Carbon Tire Print. New York Times D2

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleAustralasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine
AbbreviationAustralas. Phys. Eng. Sci. Med.
ISSN (print)0158-9938
ISSN (online)1879-5447
Biomedical Engineering
Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging

Other styles