How to format your references using the Atherosclerosis: X citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Atherosclerosis: X. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
A. Kolber, Neuroethics: Give memory-altering drugs a chance, Nature. 476 (2011) 275–276.
A journal article with 2 authors
R.M. Ransohoff, A.E. Cardona, The myeloid cells of the central nervous system parenchyma, Nature. 468 (2010) 253–262.
A journal article with 3 authors
Q. Chen, S.C. Bae, S. Granick, Directed self-assembly of a colloidal kagome lattice, Nature. 469 (2011) 381–384.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
T.M. McManus, J.A. Valiente-Kroon, S.A.R. Horsley, Y. Hao, Illusions and cloaks for surface waves, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 5977.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
J.E. Mcphee, Mastering Strategic Risk, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2014.
An edited book
D. Crane, Comet and Reverse Ajax: The Next-Generation Ajax 2.0, Apress, Berkeley, CA, 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
W.S. Cheung, S.S. Dragomir, A Survey on Ostrowski Type Inequalities for Riemann–Stieltjes Integral, in: T.M. Rassias (Ed.), Handbook of Functional Equations: Functional Inequalities, Springer, New York, NY, 2014: pp. 75–104.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Atherosclerosis: X.

Blog post
R. Andrews, Earth Has A Strange Hidden Layer Of Tectonic Plates, IFLScience. (2017). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Use of Computerized Information for Local and National Health Care Planning Purposes, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1980.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
K. Mowery, Beneath the Attack Surface, Doctoral dissertation, University of California San Diego, 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
B. Shpigel, For a Second Time This Year, Rio Defies the Odds, New York Times. (2016) B10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleAtherosclerosis: X
ISSN (print)2590-1354

Other styles