How to format your references using the Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Wadman, Meredith. 2006. “The Quiet Rise of the Clinical Contractor.” Nature 441 (7089): 22–23.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hewak, Dan, and Behrad Gholipour. 2012. “Materials Science. Primed to Remember.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 336 (6088): 1515–1516.
A journal article with 3 authors
Djuranovic, Sergej, Ali Nahvi, and Rachel Green. 2011. “A Parsimonious Model for Gene Regulation by MiRNAs.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 331 (6017): 550–553.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Huber, Daniel, Leopoldo Petreanu, Nima Ghitani, Sachin Ranade, Tomás Hromádka, Zach Mainen, and Karel Svoboda. 2008. “Sparse Optical Microstimulation in Barrel Cortex Drives Learned Behaviour in Freely Moving Mice.” Nature 451 (7174): 61–64.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Cherian, Anilla. 2015. Energy and Global Climate Change. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Taniguchi, Makoto, ed. 2011. Groundwater and Subsurface Environments: Human Impacts in Asian Coastal Cities. Tokyo: Springer Japan.
A chapter in an edited book
Rapaka, S., T. Mansi, B. Georgescu, M. Pop, G. A. Wright, A. Kamen, and Dorin Comaniciu. 2012. “LBM-EP: Lattice-Boltzmann Method for Fast Cardiac Electrophysiology Simulation from 3D Images.” In Medical Image Computing and Computer-Assisted Intervention – MICCAI 2012: 15th International Conference, Nice, France, October 1-5, 2012, Proceedings, Part II, edited by Nicholas Ayache, Hervé Delingette, Polina Golland, and Kensaku Mori, 33–40. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2015. “New Single-Dose Malaria Treatment Could Eventually Help Millions.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1999. Education and Care: Early Childhood Programs and Services for Low-Income Families. HEHS-00-11. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Dizon, Francis. 2017. “Treatment and Return to Play of Three Runners with Bone Stress Injury and/or Other Traits of a Male-Version of the Female Athlete Triad: A Case Series.” Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Cooper, Michael, and Mary Williams Walsh. 2011. “Interest Adds Up to a $1.3 Billion Bill for States.” New York Times, January 15.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Wadman 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Wadman 2006; Hewak and Gholipour 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Hewak and Gholipour 2012)
  • Three authors: (Djuranovic, Nahvi, and Green 2011)
  • 4 or more authors: (Huber et al. 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleAssessment & Evaluation in Higher Education
AbbreviationAssess. Eval. High. Educ.
ISSN (print)0260-2938
ISSN (online)1469-297X

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