How to format your references using the Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Humphries, Courtney. 2013. “Latency: A Sleeping Giant.” Nature 502 (7470): S14-5.
A journal article with 2 authors
Carrizosa, Esteban, and Thorsten R. Mempel. 2015. “Immunology: In the Right Place at the Right Time.” Nature 528 (7581): 205–206.
A journal article with 3 authors
Politi, Alberto, Jonathan C. F. Matthews, and Jeremy L. O’Brien. 2009. “Shor’s Quantum Factoring Algorithm on a Photonic Chip.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 325 (5945): 1221.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Tang, Zhen-Kun, Yan-Ning Zhang, Deng-Yu Zhang, Woon-Ming Lau, and Li-Min Liu. 2014. “The Stability and Electronic Properties of Novel Three-Dimensional Graphene-MoS2 Hybrid Structure.” Scientific Reports 4 (November): 7007.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Henry-Labordère, Arnaud. 2009. Virtual Roaming Systems for GSM, GPRS and UMTS. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Bonate, Peter L., and Danny R. Howard, eds. 2016. Pharmacokinetics in Drug Development: Problems and Challenges in Oncology, Volume 4. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Garrison, Aaron P., and Michael A. Helmrath. 2011. “Parenteral Nutrition.” In Fundamentals of Pediatric Surgery, edited by Peter Mattei, 33–36. New York, NY: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2014. “Most Convincing Evidence Yet For Dark Matter Detection.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2005. Business Systems Modernization: Internal Revenue Service’s Fiscal Year 2005 Expenditure Plan. GAO-05-774. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Shimazoe, Junko. 2012. “The Power of Forgotten Opinions: Why an Organization Chooses Inaction over the Public’s Safety.” Doctoral dissertation, Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hollander, Sophia. 2002. “Watts Wins Manhattan Race.” New York Times, June 24.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Humphries 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Humphries 2013; Carrizosa and Mempel 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Carrizosa and Mempel 2015)
  • Three authors: (Politi, Matthews, and O’Brien 2009)
  • 4 or more authors: (Tang et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleAssessment & Evaluation in Higher Education
AbbreviationAssess. Eval. High. Educ.
ISSN (print)0260-2938
ISSN (online)1469-297X

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