How to format your references using the Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sarewitz, Daniel. 2010. “World View: Politicize Me.” Nature 467 (7311): 26.
A journal article with 2 authors
Nesbit, Jeff, and Monica Bradford. 2007. “2007 Visualization Challenge.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 317 (5846): 1857.
A journal article with 3 authors
Fouchier, Ron A. M., Sander Herfst, and Albert D. M. E. Osterhaus. 2012. “Public Health and Biosecurity. Restricted Data on Influenza H5N1 Virus Transmission.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 335 (6069): 662–663.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Wang, Zi-Long, Rui Guo, Liang-Xin Ding, Ye-Xiang Tong, and Gao-Ren Li. 2013. “Controllable Template-Assisted Electrodeposition of Single- and Multi-Walled Nanotube Arrays for Electrochemical Energy Storage.” Scientific Reports 3 (February): 1204.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Wilmott, Paul, and David Orrell. 2017. The Money Formula. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Goloubeva, Olga. 2006. Software-Implemented Hardware Fault Tolerance. Edited by Maurizio Rebaudengo, Matteo Sonza Reorda, and Massimo Violante. Boston, MA: Springer US.
A chapter in an edited book
Licht, Stuart. 2008. “Thermochemical and Thermal/Photo Hybrid Solar Water Splitting.” In Solar Hydrogen Generation: Toward a Renewable Energy Future, edited by Krishnan Rajeshwar, Robert McConnell, and Stuart Licht, 87–121. New York, NY: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education.

Blog post
Hamilton, Kristy. 2016. “How To Tell If Your Boss Is A Psychopath – And What To Do About It.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1993. Federal Research: Super Collider--National Security Benefits, Similar Projects, and Cost. RCED-93-158. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Dean, Danielle O. 2012. “A Discrete-Time Multiple Event Process Survival Mixture (MEPSUM) Model for Investigating the Order and Timing of Multiple Non-Repeatable Events.” Doctoral dissertation, Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Baker, Peter. 2017. “Leaving Stress As More Waits In Trip Abroad.” New York Times, May 19.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Sarewitz 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Sarewitz 2010; Nesbit and Bradford 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Nesbit and Bradford 2007)
  • Three authors: (Fouchier, Herfst, and Osterhaus 2012)
  • 4 or more authors: (Wang et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleAssessment & Evaluation in Higher Education
AbbreviationAssess. Eval. High. Educ.
ISSN (print)0260-2938
ISSN (online)1469-297X

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