How to format your references using the Artificial DNA: PNA & XNA citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Artificial DNA: PNA & XNA. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Cullen BR. Viral and cellular messenger RNA targets of viral microRNAs. Nature 2009; 457:421–5.
A journal article with 2 authors
Surani A, Tischler J. Stem cells: a sporadic super state. Nature 2012; 487:43–5.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ryckman JD, Jiao Y, Weiss SM. Three-dimensional patterning and morphological control of porous nanomaterials by gray-scale direct imprinting. Sci Rep 2013; 3:1502.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Li H-C, Hsieh F-J, Chen C-P, Chang M-Y, Hsieh PCH, Chen C-C, Hung S-U, Wu C-C, Chang H-C. The hemocompatibility of oxidized diamond nanocrystals for biomedical applications. Sci Rep 2013; 3:3044.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Anderson JC, Naeim F. Basic Structural Dynamics. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2012.
An edited book
Agosti M, Esposito F, Thanos C, editors. Digital Libraries: 6th Italian Research Conference, IRCDL 2010, Padua, Italy, January 28-29, 2010. Revised Selected Papers. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
Sethi S, Ray BC. Mechanical Behavior of Polymer Composites at Cryogenic Temperatures. In: Kalia S, Fu S-Y, editors. Polymers at Cryogenic Temperatures. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2013. page 59–113.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Artificial DNA: PNA & XNA.

Blog post
Andrew D. Lightning Strike Causes Whiskey Firenado At Jim Beam Factory [Internet]. IFLScience2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]; Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Transportation Security: Actions Needed to Address Limitations in TSA’s Transportation Worker Security Threat Assessments and Growing Workload. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2011.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hamilton MA. Experiences of Everyday Racism: Understanding the Racial Difference in Perceptions of Physicians’ Cultural Competence. 2003;

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey G. Long-Suffering Saints Fans Could Use Some Good Times. New York Times2010; :SP2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleArtificial DNA: PNA & XNA
AbbreviationArtif. DNA PNA XNA
ISSN (print)1949-095X
ISSN (online)1949-0968
Organic Chemistry

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