How to format your references using the Artificial DNA: PNA & XNA citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Artificial DNA: PNA & XNA. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sanov A. Chemistry. Coherence and symmetry breaking at the molecular level. Science 2007; 315:610–1.
A journal article with 2 authors
Juliano C, Wessel G. Developmental biology. Versatile germline genes. Science 2010; 329:640–1.
A journal article with 3 authors
Armitage JJ, Collier JS, Minshull TA. The importance of rift history for volcanic margin formation. Nature 2010; 465:913–7.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Menand B, Yi K, Jouannic S, Hoffmann L, Ryan E, Linstead P, Schaefer DG, Dolan L. An ancient mechanism controls the development of cells with a rooting function in land plants. Science 2007; 316:1477–80.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Atkin N, Biddiss M, Tallett F. The Wiley-Blackwell Dictionary of Modern European History Since 1789. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell; 2011.
An edited book
Salawu A, Chibita MB, editors. Indigenous Language Media, Language Politics and Democracy in Africa. London: Palgrave Macmillan UK; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
May J, Diga K. Progress Towards Resolving the Measurement Link Between ICT and Poverty Reduction. In: Chib A, May J, Barrantes R, editors. Impact of Information Society Research in the Global South. Singapore: Springer; 2015. page 83–104.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Artificial DNA: PNA & XNA.

Blog post
Hamilton K. Lucky Photographer Captures Epic Battle Between Sea Snake And Stonefish [Internet]. IFLScience2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]; Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Individuals with Disabilities Education Act: Standards Needed to Improve Identification of Racial and Ethnic Overrepresentation in Special Education. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2013.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Moreno S. Mother-child relationships: Females behind bars and their children. 2009;

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kenigsberg B. Film Series. New York Times2017; :C23.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleArtificial DNA: PNA & XNA
AbbreviationArtif. DNA PNA XNA
ISSN (print)1949-095X
ISSN (online)1949-0968
Organic Chemistry

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