How to format your references using the Artificial DNA: PNA & XNA citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Artificial DNA: PNA & XNA. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bosch X. Spain’s science figures under fire. Nature 2000; 407:821.
A journal article with 2 authors
MacArthur BD, Oreffo ROC. Bridging the gap. Nature 2005; 433:19.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ye J, Kimble HJ, Katori H. Quantum state engineering and precision metrology using state-insensitive light traps. Science 2008; 320:1734–8.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Thomas PC, Malin MC, Edgett KS, Carr MH, Hartmann WK, Ingersoll AP, James PB, Soderblom LA, Veverka J, Sullivan R. North-south geological differences between the residual polar caps on Mars. Nature 2000; 404:161–4.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Matthews C. Engineers’ Data Book. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2012.
An edited book
Bahadori A. Essentials of Water Systems Design in the Oil, Gas, and Chemical Processing Industries. New York, NY: Springer; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
Morris SJ, Friese CF, Allen MF. 4 Disturbance in Natural Ecosystems: Scaling from Fungal Diversity to Ecosystem Functioning. In: Druzhinina IS, Kubicek CP, editors. Environmental and Microbial Relationships. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016. page 79–98.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Artificial DNA: PNA & XNA.

Blog post
Andrew D. No It’s Not Your Imagination, It Actually Is Colder On The Weekend (If You Live In A City) [Internet]. IFLScience2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]; Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Status of Budget Authority Proposed for Rescission. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1984.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ciolek R. A Mixed Method Study on the Missouri Beginning Teachers Assistance Program and Teacher Retention in Saint Louis School Districts. 2017;

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow K. If You Can’t Stand the Name, Get Out of Hell’s Kitchen. New York Times2002; :144.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleArtificial DNA: PNA & XNA
AbbreviationArtif. DNA PNA XNA
ISSN (print)1949-095X
ISSN (online)1949-0968
Organic Chemistry

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