How to format your references using the Artificial DNA: PNA & XNA citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Artificial DNA: PNA & XNA. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hell SW. Far-field optical nanoscopy. Science 2007; 316:1153–8.
A journal article with 2 authors
Macquaker JHS, Bohacs KM. Geology. On the accumulation of mud. Science 2007; 318:1734–5.
A journal article with 3 authors
Vinther J, Van Roy P, Briggs DEG. Machaeridians are Palaeozoic armoured annelids. Nature 2008; 451:185–8.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Davies B, King A, Newman P, Minett A, Dunstan CR, Zreiqat H. Hypothesis: bones toughness arises from the suppression of elastic waves. Sci Rep 2014; 4:7538.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Young S, Smith J. Helping Children with ADHD. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2017.
An edited book
Bostan I. Resilient Energy Systems: Renewables: Wind, Solar, Hydro. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
Ciobanu G. Modeling Cell-Mediated Immunity by Means of P Systems. In: Ciobanu G, Păun G, Pérez-Jiménez MJ, editors. Applications of Membrane Computing. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2005. page 159–80.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Artificial DNA: PNA & XNA.

Blog post
Andrew E. Retraction Of Scientific Papers For Fraud Or Bias Is Just The Tip Of The Iceberg [Internet]. IFLScience2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]; Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Apprenticeship Training: Administration, Use, and Equal Opportunity. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1992.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
DeLutis-Eichenberger AN. El proceso semiótico de un héroe decimonónico: Un estudio en torno a los “textos-tumbas” de Andrés Bello. 2010;

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
Healy J, Fandos N. Protesters Gain Victory in Fight Over Oil Pipeline. New York Times2016; :A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleArtificial DNA: PNA & XNA
AbbreviationArtif. DNA PNA XNA
ISSN (print)1949-095X
ISSN (online)1949-0968
Organic Chemistry

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