How to format your references using the Arthritis Research & Therapy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Arthritis Research & Therapy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Cohen MR. Eppendorf winner. When attention wanders. Science. 2012;338:58–9.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Hill RA, Barton RA. Psychology: red enhances human performance in contests. Nature. 2005;435:293.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Abe E, Pennycook SJ, Tsai AP. Direct observation of a local thermal vibration anomaly in a quasicrystal. Nature. 2003;421:347–50.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Chiarucci R, Madeo D, Loffredo MI, Castellani E, Santarcangelo EL, Mocenni C. Cross-evidence for hypnotic susceptibility through nonlinear measures on EEGs of non-hypnotized subjects. Sci Rep. 2014;4:5610.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. CCPS. Guidelines for Mechanical Integrity Systems. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2006.
An edited book
1. Chivers ID. Introduction to Programming with Fortran. Sleightholme J, editor. London: Springer; 2006.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Hornberger K. Introduction to Decoherence Theory. In: Buchleitner A, Viviescas C, Tiersch M, editors. Entanglement and Decoherence: Foundations and Modern Trends. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2009. p. 221–76.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Arthritis Research & Therapy.

Blog post
1. Andrew D. Would Gender Differences Exist If We Treated All People The Same From Birth? [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Human Capital: Building the Information Technology Workforce to Achieve Results. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2001 Jul. Report No.: GAO-01-1007T.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Bono S. Perceptions of Psychological Abuse and the Impact of Blame and Gender Role Beliefs [Doctoral dissertation]. [Edwardsville, IL]: Southern Illinois University; 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Eligon J, Kovaleski SF, Coscarelli J. Pain and Pills, and Help Too Late to Save Prince. New York Times. 2016 May 4;A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleArthritis Research & Therapy
ISSN (online)1478-6362

Other styles