How to format your references using the Arthritis Research & Therapy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Arthritis Research & Therapy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Jones DT. Structural biology. Learning to speak the language of proteins. Science. 2003;302:1347–8.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Redman BK, Merz JF. Sociology. Scientific misconduct: do the punishments fit the crime? Science. 2008;321:775.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Rainville S, Thompson JK, Pritchard DE. An ion balance for ultra-high-precision atomic mass measurements. Science. 2004;303:334–8.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Melnick GJ, Neufeld DA, Saavik Ford KE, Hollenbach DJ, Ashby ML. Discovery of water vapour around IRC+10216 as evidence for comets orbiting another star. Nature. 2001;412:160–3.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Zirngibl L. Antifungal Azoles. Weinheim, FRG: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2005.
An edited book
1. Truong LD. Frozen Section Library: Genitourinary Tract. Shen SS, Ro JY, editors. New York, NY: Springer; 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
1. McMillan DB. Events Associated with Fertilization. In: McMillan DB, editor. Fish Histology: Female Reproductive Systems. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2007. p. 285–333.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Arthritis Research & Therapy.

Blog post
1. O`Callaghan J. Feral Girl Found With Monkeys In A Forest In India [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2017 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Drug Education: School-Based Programs Seen as Useful but Impact Unknown. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1990 Nov. Report No.: HRD-91-27.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Drake DA. Viscoelastic characterization of vapor-grown carbon nanofiber/vinyl ester nanocomposites using a response surface methodology [Doctoral dissertation]. [Mississippi State, MS]: Mississippi State University; 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Forsythe M, Stevenson A. Gadfly Nettles Chinese Elite From 5th Ave. New York Times. 2017 May 30;A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleArthritis Research & Therapy
ISSN (online)1478-6362

Other styles