How to format your references using the Arthritis Care & Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Arthritis Care & Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Winklhofer M. Physiology. An avian magnetometer. Science 2012;336:991–992.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Ruocco G, Fratalocchi A. Period doubling induced by thermal noise amplification in genetic circuits. Sci Rep 2014;4:7088.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Lind PA, Berg OG, Andersson DI. Mutational robustness of ribosomal protein genes. Science 2010;330:825–827.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Gamo F-J, Sanz LM, Vidal J, Cozar C de, Alvarez E, Lavandera J-L, et al. Thousands of chemical starting points for antimalarial lead identification. Nature 2010;465:305–310.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Godwin W. International Construction Contracts. Oxford: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2013.
An edited book
1. Komorowski T. Fluctuations in Markov Processes: Time Symmetry and Martingale Approximation. (Landim C, Olla S, eds.). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Jögi A. Tumour Hypoxia and the Hypoxia-Inducible Transcription Factors: Key Players in Cancer Progression and Metastasis. In: Mazurek S, Shoshan M, eds. Tumor Cell Metabolism: Pathways, Regulation and Biology. Vienna: Springer; 2015:65–98.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Arthritis Care & Research.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. Engineered Viruses Could Fight Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria. IFLScience 2015. Available at: Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Better Management Needed in Social Security Administration’s Toll-Free Telephone Service to the Public. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1981.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Torres A. An understanding of the first-generation community college student: A strengths and assets approach. 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. McKINLEY J, Mueller B, Rojas R. Witness Says Clash Over Witchcraft Preceded a Teenager’s Fatal Beating. New York Times. October 17, 2015:A17.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleArthritis Care & Research
AbbreviationArthritis Care Res. (Hoboken)
ISSN (print)2151-464X
ISSN (online)2151-4658

Other styles