How to format your references using the Arthritis Care & Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Arthritis Care & Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Nath I. Obituary: Christopher Curtis (1939-2008). Nature 2008;453:1002.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Plous S, Herzog H. Animal research. Reliability of protocol reviews for animal research. Science 2001;293:608–609.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Kahn SE, Hull RL, Utzschneider KM. Mechanisms linking obesity to insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Nature 2006;444:840–846.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Brownell RL Jr, Tillman MF, Sciara GN di, Berggren P, Read AJ. Further scrutiny of scientific whaling. Science 2000;290:1696a.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Castle D, Cline C, Daar AS, Tsamis C, Singer PA. Science, Society, and the Supermarket. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2006.
An edited book
1. Takahashi T ed. Radiological Issues for Fukushima’s Revitalized Future. Tokyo: Springer Japan; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Borok S, Goldfarb I, Gol’dshtein V, Maas U. “Ghost” ILDM-Manifolds and Their Identification. In: Gorban AN, Kevrekidis IG, Theodoropoulos C, Kazantzis NK, Öttinger HC, eds. Model Reduction and Coarse-Graining Approaches for Multiscale Phenomena. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2006:55–79.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Arthritis Care & Research.

Blog post
1. Davis J. Aerial Footage Of The Enormous Antarctic Ice Crack That’s Worrying Scientists. IFLScience 2017.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. ADP Planning: SSA’s February 1989 Report on Computer Modernization Is Incomplete. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1989.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Goldner VR. Arizona nurses’ attitudes toward legislated minimum staffing ratios: Impact on the workplace. 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Stewart JB. After Trump, Executives Ponder Path Into Politics. New York Times. March 9, 2017:B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleArthritis Care & Research
AbbreviationArthritis Care Res. (Hoboken)
ISSN (print)2151-464X
ISSN (online)2151-4658

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