How to format your references using the Arthritis Care & Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Arthritis Care & Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Williams Q. Geophysics. Deep mantle matters. Science 2014;344:800–801.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Schink B, Friedrich M. Phosphite oxidation by sulphate reduction. Nature 2000;406:37.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Mumby PJ, Hastings A, Edwards HJ. Thresholds and the resilience of Caribbean coral reefs. Nature 2007;450:98–101.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Paler A, Devitt SJ, Nemoto K, Polian I. Mapping of topological quantum circuits to physical hardware. Sci Rep 2014;4:4657.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Boddy R, Smith G. Effective Experimentation. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2010.
An edited book
1. Kitaev S. Words and Graphs. (Lozin V, ed.). Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Shi X. The Path Toward Mass Higher Education in China. In: Shin JC, Postiglione GA, Huang F, eds. Mass Higher Education Development in East Asia: Strategy, Quality, and Challenges. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015:63–88.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Arthritis Care & Research.

Blog post
1. Fang J. Researchers Discover Off Switch for Ageing Cells. IFLScience 2014. Available at: Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Year 2000 Computing Crisis: Progress Made in Compliance of VA Systems, But Concerns Remain. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1998.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Krug KA. Critical literacy in the face of a mandated curriculum: Can children read beyond the text? 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Wagner J. Baseball; Rainout Gives Injured Mets More Rest. New York Times. July 6, 2017:B14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleArthritis Care & Research
AbbreviationArthritis Care Res. (Hoboken)
ISSN (print)2151-464X
ISSN (online)2151-4658

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