How to format your references using the Arthritis & Rheumatism citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Arthritis & Rheumatism. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Miyamoto K. Structural model of ubiquitin transfer onto an artificial RING finger as an E3 ligase. Sci Rep 2014;4:6574.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Ize B, Palmer T. Microbiology. Mycobacteria’s export strategy. Science 2006;313:1583–1584.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Hibbins AP, Evans BR, Sambles JR. Experimental verification of designer surface plasmons. Science 2005;308:670–672.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Schwartz MK, Mills LS, McKelvey KS, Ruggiero LF, Allendorf FW. DNA reveals high dispersal synchronizing the population dynamics of Canada lynx. Nature 2002;415:520–522.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Audibert P. Mathematics for Informatics and Computer Science. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2013.
An edited book
1. Issariyakul T. Introduction to Network Simulator NS2. Second Edition. (Hossain E, ed.). Boston, MA: Springer US; 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Pistone G, Vicario G. Design for Computer Experiments: Comparing and Generating Designs in Kriging Models. In: Erto P, ed. Statistics for Innovation: Statistical Design of “Continuous” Product Innovation. Milano: Springer; 2009:91–102.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Arthritis & Rheumatism.

Blog post
1. O`Callaghan J. New Holes Found In Curiosity Rover’s Wheels On Mars. IFLScience 2017. Available at: Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Intercity Passenger Rail: Amtrak’s Financial Viability Continues to Be Threatened. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1997.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Knoth KC. Biological Course-Based Undergraduate Research Experiences: An Examination of an Introductory Level Implementation. 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Kelly M. THE 1992 CAMPAIGN: Political Week; “Did Not!” and “Did So!” Frame the Tax Debate. New York Times. September 1, 1992:A14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleArthritis & Rheumatism
AbbreviationArthritis Rheum.
ISSN (print)0004-3591
ISSN (online)1529-0131
Immunology and Allergy
Pharmacology (medical)

Other styles