How to format your references using the Arthritis & Rheumatism citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Arthritis & Rheumatism. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Hoag H. Building bridges. Nature 2003;425:882–883.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Caicedo A, Roper SD. Taste receptor cells that discriminate between bitter stimuli. Science 2001;291:1557–1560.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Gutiérrez NL, Hilborn R, Defeo O. Leadership, social capital and incentives promote successful fisheries. Nature 2011;470:386–389.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Schmidt PO, Rosenband T, Langer C, Itano WM, Bergquist JC, Wineland DJ. Spectroscopy using quantum logic. Science 2005;309:749–752.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Hanzo L, Maunder RG, Wang J, Yang L-L. Near-Capacity Variable-Length Coding. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2010.
An edited book
1. Stockmann R, Meyer W eds. The Future of Evaluation: Global Trends, New Challenges, Shared Perspectives. London: Palgrave Macmillan UK; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Le Guernic G. Information Flow Testing. In: Cervesato I, ed. Advances in Computer Science – ASIAN 2007. Computer and Network Security: 12th Asian Computing Science Conference, Doha, Qatar, December 9-11, 2007. Proceedings. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2007:33–47.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Arthritis & Rheumatism.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. Liberia Hit with More Ebola Cases as Virus Resurfaces. IFLScience 2015. Available at: Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Social Security Numbers: More Could be Done to Protect SSNs. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2006.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Ringler I. Values satisfaction and participation in a community leadership program: A case study. 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Barron J. In the Age of Reality TV, a Best-Selling Author Calls In Real-Life Heroes. New York Times. January 29, 2017:A18.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleArthritis & Rheumatism
AbbreviationArthritis Rheum.
ISSN (print)0004-3591
ISSN (online)1529-0131
Immunology and Allergy
Pharmacology (medical)

Other styles