How to format your references using the Arthritis & Rheumatism citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Arthritis & Rheumatism. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Benovic JL. Structural biology: Arresting developments in receptor signalling. Nature 2015;523:538–539.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Higgins CF, Linton KJ. Structural biology. The xyz of ABC transporters. Science 2001;293:1782–1784.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Thomas DSG, Knight M, Wiggs GFS. Remobilization of southern African desert dune systems by twenty-first century global warming. Nature 2005;435:1218–1221.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Behrenfeld MJ, Worthington K, Sherrell RM, Chavez FP, Strutton P, McPhaden M, et al. Controls on tropical Pacific Ocean productivity revealed through nutrient stress diagnostics. Nature 2006;442:1025–1028.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Morvillo N. Science and Religion. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell; 2010.
An edited book
1. Blumenhagen R. Introduction to Conformal Field Theory: With Applications to String Theory. (Plauschinn E, ed.). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Herrington J. Flex and AIR: Taking Applications to the Desktop. In: Herrington J, Elrom E, Mostafa J, eds. AdvancED Flex 3. Berkeley, CA: Apress; 2008:181–206.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Arthritis & Rheumatism.

Blog post
1. Fang J. New Horned Dino Sported Gnarly Headgear with a Curly Frill. IFLScience 2015. Available at: Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. The Stafford Student Loan Program. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1990.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Brown CP. Range vs. register: An important distinction in choral repertoire for the adolescent male. 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Brantley B. A Martyr So Sure of Herself. New York Times. March 16, 2017:C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleArthritis & Rheumatism
AbbreviationArthritis Rheum.
ISSN (print)0004-3591
ISSN (online)1529-0131
Immunology and Allergy
Pharmacology (medical)

Other styles