How to format your references using the Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Binns WR. Astronomy. Cosmic-ray origins. Science. 2011;334(6059):1071-1072.
A journal article with 2 authors
Jackson MG, Carlson RW. An ancient recipe for flood-basalt genesis. Nature. 2011;476(7360):316-319.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bryden HL, Longworth HR, Cunningham SA. Slowing of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation at 25 degrees N. Nature. 2005;438(7068):655-657.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Gilchrist M, Thorsson V, Li B, et al. Systems biology approaches identify ATF3 as a negative regulator of Toll-like receptor 4. Nature. 2006;441(7090):173-178.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Jay SA. High Voltage Electricity Installations. Chichester, England: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2006.
An edited book
Luo Q, ed. Advancing Computing, Communication, Control and Management. Vol 56. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
Deiseroth B, Fehr V, Fischlin M, Maasz M, Reimers NF, Stein R. Computing on Authenticated Data for Adjustable Predicates. In: Jacobson M, Locasto M, Mohassel P, Safavi-Naini R, eds. Applied Cryptography and Network Security: 11th International Conference, ACNS 2013, Banff, AB, Canada, June 25-28, 2013. Proceedings. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2013:53-68.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine.

Blog post
Andrew D. Lion Gets A CAT Scan. IFLScience. Published November 6, 2015. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Maritime Industry: Federal Assessments Levied on Commercial Vessels. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1993.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Guzman BP. Understanding the factors affecting local emergency service collaboration. 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Glenn Hubbard R, Kane T. Republicans and Democrats Both Miscalculated. New York Times. August 12, 2013:A17.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleArchives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine
AbbreviationArch. Pediatr. Adolesc. Med.
ISSN (print)1072-4710
ISSN (online)1538-3628
ScopePediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health

Other styles