How to format your references using the Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gogotsi Y. Materials science. High-temperature rubber made from carbon nanotubes. Science. 2010;330(6009):1332-1333.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ha S-J, Moon JH. In-situ fabrication of macroporous films for dye-sensitised solar cells: formation of the scattering layer and the gelation of electrolytes. Sci Rep. 2014;4:5375.
A journal article with 3 authors
Opher M, Stone EC, Gombosi TI. The orientation of the local interstellar magnetic field. Science. 2007;316(5826):875-878.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Narymbetov B, Omerzu A, Kabanov VV, Tokumoto M, Kobayashi H, Mihailovic D. Origin of ferromagnetic exchange interactions in a fullerene-organic compound. Nature. 2000;407(6806):883-885.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Franco P. Understanding Bitcoin. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2014.
An edited book
Olsen O-A, ed. Endosperm: Developmental and Molecular Biology. Vol 8. Springer; 2007.
A chapter in an edited book
Neubauer M. E-Learning Support for Business Process Modeling: Linking Modeling Language Concepts to General Modeling Concepts and Vice Versa. In: Stary C, ed. S-BPM ONE – Scientific Research: 4th International Conference, S-BPM ONE 2012, Vienna, Austria, April 4-5, 2012. Proceedings. Lecture Notes in Business Information Processing. Springer; 2012:62-76.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine.

Blog post
Evans K. Dogs And Monkeys Judge You On How You Treat Others. IFLScience. Published February 16, 2017. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. New Alien Identification System--Little Help in Stopping Illegal Aliens. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1979.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Grass DS. Assessing the impacts of air pollution and extreme weather on human health in the urban environment. Published online 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Murphy S. Feeding More for Less in Niger. New York Times. August 19, 2005:A19.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleArchives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine
AbbreviationArch. Pediatr. Adolesc. Med.
ISSN (print)1072-4710
ISSN (online)1538-3628
ScopePediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health

Other styles