How to format your references using the Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Carr AM. Molecular biology. Beginning at the end. Science. 2003;300(5625):1512-1513.
A journal article with 2 authors
Krishnan V, Nestler EJ. The molecular neurobiology of depression. Nature. 2008;455(7215):894-902.
A journal article with 3 authors
Leman L, Orgel L, Ghadiri MR. Carbonyl sulfide-mediated prebiotic formation of peptides. Science. 2004;306(5694):283-286.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Feng P, Niu M, Gao C, Peng S, Shuai C. A novel two-step sintering for nano-hydroxyapatite scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. Sci Rep. 2014;4:5599.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Alrifai T. Islamic Finance and the New Financial System. John Wiley & Sons Singapore Pte. Ltd; 2015.
An edited book
Kindscher K, ed. Echinacea: Herbal Medicine with a Wild History. Springer International Publishing; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Kuntze N, Schmidt AU. Trusted Ticket Systems and Applications. In: Venter H, Eloff M, Labuschagne L, Eloff J, Solms R von, eds. New Approaches for Security, Privacy and Trust in Complex Environments: Proceedings of the IFIP TC-11 22nd International Information Security Conference (SEC 2007), 14–16 May 2007, Sandton, South Africa. IFIP International Federation for Information Processing. Springer US; 2007:49-60.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine.

Blog post
Davis J. Cooperating Ants Follow A Leader When Moving Food. IFLScience. Published July 31, 2015. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. The Need for a Better Trained EDP Auditor. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1982.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Williams Soberanes C. Experiences of Mexican Immigrant Women Living in the Washington D.C. Metropolitan Area. Published online 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
St. Fleur N. Rattled by Trump Policies, Scientists Take to Streets. New York Times. April 22, 2017:A25.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleArchives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine
AbbreviationArch. Pediatr. Adolesc. Med.
ISSN (print)1072-4710
ISSN (online)1538-3628
ScopePediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health

Other styles