How to format your references using the Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Wood SN. Statistical inference for noisy nonlinear ecological dynamic systems. Nature. 2010;466(7310):1102-1104.
A journal article with 2 authors
Spaldin NA, Fiebig M. Materials science. The renaissance of magnetoelectric multiferroics. Science. 2005;309(5733):391-392.
A journal article with 3 authors
Park H, Li Y, Tsien RW. Influence of synaptic vesicle position on release probability and exocytotic fusion mode. Science. 2012;335(6074):1362-1366.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Lunde C, Jensen PE, Haldrup A, Knoetzel J, Scheller HV. The PSI-H subunit of photosystem I is essential for state transitions in plant photosynthesis. Nature. 2000;408(6812):613-615.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Henderson TJ. Beyond Borders. Wiley-Blackwell; 2011.
An edited book
Cerro LF del, Herzig A, Mengin J, eds. Logics in Artificial Intelligence: 13th European Conference, JELIA 2012, Toulouse, France, September 26-28, 2012. Proceedings. Vol 7519. Springer; 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
Sinz W, Hoschopf H, Kirschbichler S, et al. Methods to Prevent or Mitigate Accidents with Large Animals. In: Öchsner A, Silva LFM da, Altenbach H, eds. Characterization and Development of Biosystems and Biomaterials. Advanced Structured Materials. Springer; 2013:69-97.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine.

Blog post
Andrews R. Scientists Have Successfully Drilled Into The Dinosaur-Killing Impact Crater. IFLScience. Published May 4, 2016. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Health Information Technology: CMS Took Steps to Improve Its Beneficiary Eligibility Verification System. U.S. Government Printing Office; 2012.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Carrillo J. Parenting education curriculum for single adolescent mothers in foster care. Published online 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kenigsberg B. Film Series. New York Times. October 19, 2017:C26.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleArchives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine
AbbreviationArch. Pathol. Lab. Med.
ISSN (print)0003-9985
ISSN (online)1543-2165
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Pathology and Forensic Medicine
Medical Laboratory Technology

Other styles