How to format your references using the Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sherwood S. Climate science: The Sun and the rain. Nature. 2015;528(7581):200-201.
A journal article with 2 authors
Butler D, Pockley P. Monsanto makes rice genome public. Nature. 2000;404(6778):534.
A journal article with 3 authors
Griesinger CB, Richards CD, Ashmore JF. Fast vesicle replenishment allows indefatigable signalling at the first auditory synapse. Nature. 2005;435(7039):212-215.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Zhang Y, Li S, Zhang J, et al. High-performance gas sensors with temperature measurement. Sci Rep. 2013;3:1267.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Harper C. Analytic Methods in Physics. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2005.
An edited book
Rowiński P, ed. Experimental and Computational Solutions of Hydraulic Problems: 32nd International School of Hydraulics. Springer; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
Sampson AP. Antileukotrienes in Asthma and Rhinitis. In: Pawankar R, Holgate ST, Rosenwasser LJ, eds. Allergy Frontiers: Therapy and Prevention. Springer Japan; 2010:63-90.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine.

Blog post
Andrew E. How Rosetta Made An Epic Journey Through Space And Overcame Incredible Challenges. IFLScience. Published November 13, 2014. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Federal Lands: Enhanced Planning Could Assist Agencies in Managing Increased Use of Off-Highway Vehicles. U.S. Government Printing Office; 2009.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Rehan TY. Analysis of Life-Cycle Cost, Properties, and Field Performance of Parking Lot Pavements. Published online 2016.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Bosman J, Harmon A. Love of Music Drew Victims To a Fatal Trap. New York Times. October 4, 2017:A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleArchives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine
AbbreviationArch. Pathol. Lab. Med.
ISSN (print)0003-9985
ISSN (online)1543-2165
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Pathology and Forensic Medicine
Medical Laboratory Technology

Other styles