How to format your references using the Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Jayaraman KS. India’s finest, for hire. Nature. 2000;407(6806):830-831.
A journal article with 2 authors
Popp MW, Maquat LE. RNA. A TRICK’n way to see the pioneer round of translation. Science. 2015;347(6228):1316-1317.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hempson GP, Archibald S, Bond WJ. A continent-wide assessment of the form and intensity of large mammal herbivory in Africa. Science. 2015;350(6264):1056-1061.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Landi MT, Bauer J, Pfeiffer RM, et al. MC1R germline variants confer risk for BRAF-mutant melanoma. Science. 2006;313(5786):521-522.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Liphard KG. Labormanagement. D-69451 Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH; 2014.
An edited book
Berkowitz L, McCarthy C, eds. Innovation with Information Technologies in Healthcare. London: Springer; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
Cassotta S, Hossain K, Ren J, Goodsite ME. Climate Change and Human Security in a Regulatory Multilevel and Multidisciplinary Dimension: The Case of the Arctic Environmental Ocean. In: Leal Filho W, Musa H, Cavan G, O’Hare P, Seixas J, eds. Climate Change Adaptation, Resilience and Hazards. Climate Change Management. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016:71-91.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine.

Blog post
Davis J. Tigers Seized By Officials From Controversial Tiger Temple In Thailand. IFLScience. Published June 2, 2016. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Management of Federally Financed Research by the University of Michigan--A Case Study. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1970.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Janpengpen A. Monitoring and forecasting biosolids odors at prior lime and post lime addition in wastewater treatment plants. 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Powell M. Zen Phil Exits The Garden. The Knicks Will Endure. New York Times. June 28, 2017:B9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleArchives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine
AbbreviationArch. Pathol. Lab. Med.
ISSN (print)0003-9985
ISSN (online)1543-2165
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Pathology and Forensic Medicine
Medical Laboratory Technology

Other styles