How to format your references using the Archives of Otolaryngology - Head & Neck Surgery citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Archives of Otolaryngology - Head & Neck Surgery. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Buckingham S. Exploring the public domain. Nature. 2004;428(6984):774.
A journal article with 2 authors
Drain PK, Barry M. Global health. Fifty years of U.S. embargo: Cuba’s health outcomes and lessons. Science. 2010;328(5978):572-573.
A journal article with 3 authors
Taylor AH, Allen JI, Clark PA. Extraction of a weak climatic signal by an ecosystem. Nature. 2002;416(6881):629-632.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Yu J, Xiao J, Ren X, Lao K, Xie XS. Probing gene expression in live cells, one protein molecule at a time. Science. 2006;311(5767):1600-1603.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Eisner H. Managing Complex Systems. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2005.
An edited book
Nickels TB, ed. IUTAM Symposium on The Physics of Wall-Bounded Turbulent Flows on Rough Walls: Proceedings of the IUTAM Symposium on The Physics of Wall-Bounded Turbulent Flows on Rough Walls, Held Cambridge, UK, July 7-9, 2009. Vol 22. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
Borges V, Jeberson W. Fuzzy kNN Adaptation to Learning by Example in Activity Recognition Modeling. In: Nagar A, Mohapatra DP, Chaki N, eds. Proceedings of 3rd International Conference on Advanced Computing, Networking and Informatics: ICACNI 2015, Volume 1. Smart Innovation, Systems and Technologies. New Delhi: Springer India; 2016:29-36.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Archives of Otolaryngology - Head & Neck Surgery.

Blog post
Davis J. Infected Zombie Beetles Encourage Males To Have Sex With Their Corpses. IFLScience. Published June 13, 2017. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicle: Introducing Competition into National Security Space Launch Acquisitions. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2014.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hansell L. Perceptions of Supervisor Ethical Behavior by Psychology Interns. 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Seltzer M. Doctor in the House. New York Times. September 10, 2017:A18.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleArchives of Otolaryngology - Head & Neck Surgery
AbbreviationArch. Otolaryngol. Head. Neck Surg.
ISSN (print)0886-4470
ISSN (online)1538-361X
ScopeGeneral Medicine

Other styles