How to format your references using the Archives of Otolaryngology - Head & Neck Surgery citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Archives of Otolaryngology - Head & Neck Surgery. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
McGloin D. Applied physics: Optical trapping for space mirrors. Nature. 2014;506(7489):437-438.
A journal article with 2 authors
Blackburn TM, Duncan RP. Determinants of establishment success in introduced birds. Nature. 2001;414(6860):195-197.
A journal article with 3 authors
Jedema FJ, Filip AT, Van Wees BJ. Spintronics (Communication arising): Spin accumulation in mesoscopic systems. Nature. 2002;416(6883):810.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Thomas PC, Malin MC, Edgett KS, et al. North-south geological differences between the residual polar caps on Mars. Nature. 2000;404(6774):161-164.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Allen MW. Michael Allen’s Guide to e-Learning. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2016.
An edited book
Ghodssi R, Lin P, eds. MEMS Materials and Processes Handbook. Vol 1. Springer US; 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
Noguera C, Duchien L. Annotation Framework Validation Using Domain Models. In: Schieferdecker I, Hartman A, eds. Model Driven Architecture – Foundations and Applications: 4th European Conference, ECMDA-FA 2008, Berlin, Germany, June 9-13, 2008. Proceedings. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer; 2008:48-62.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Archives of Otolaryngology - Head & Neck Surgery.

Blog post
Andrew D. Data Should Smash the Biological Myth of Promiscuous Males and Sexually Coy Females. IFLScience. Published January 27, 2017. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Internet Protocol Version 6: Federal Agencies Need to Plan for Transition and Manage Security Risks. U.S. Government Printing Office; 2005.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Laffitte L. A Comparison of Pull-Out and Co-Teaching Models on the Reading Performance of Third through Fifth Grade Elementary Students with a Diagnosed Specific Learning Disability in Reading. Published online 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow K. Singed From the Attack, Trees Find a Safer Home. New York Times. November 11, 2001:146.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleArchives of Otolaryngology - Head & Neck Surgery
AbbreviationArch. Otolaryngol. Head. Neck Surg.
ISSN (print)0886-4470
ISSN (online)1538-361X
ScopeGeneral Medicine

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