How to format your references using the Archives of Otolaryngology - Head & Neck Surgery citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Archives of Otolaryngology - Head & Neck Surgery. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Check E. Journals tighten up on biosecurity. Nature. 2003;421(6925):774.
A journal article with 2 authors
Wood B, Harrison T. The evolutionary context of the first hominins. Nature. 2011;470(7334):347-352.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kaan HYK, Hackney DD, Kozielski F. The structure of the kinesin-1 motor-tail complex reveals the mechanism of autoinhibition. Science. 2011;333(6044):883-885.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Tsukatani Y, Yamamoto H, Harada J, et al. An unexpectedly branched biosynthetic pathway for bacteriochlorophyll b capable of absorbing near-infrared light. Sci Rep. 2013;3:1217.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Adams DJ, Dyson PJ, Tavener SJ. Chemistry in Alternative Reaction Media. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2005.
An edited book
Ieda H, ed. Sustainable Urban Transport in an Asian Context. Vol 9. Springer Japan; 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
Chauchefoin P, Sauvent A. Technological Rent: The Key for Water Services Regulation. In: Schneier-Madanes G, ed. Globalized Water: A Question of Governance. Springer Netherlands; 2014:63-75.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Archives of Otolaryngology - Head & Neck Surgery.

Blog post
Andrew E. DNA Strands Used To Create Origami Nanobots Inside Cockroaches. IFLScience. Published April 10, 2014. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. District of Columbia: Planned Funding and Schedule for D.C. Public Schools’ Modernization Program Are Unrealistic. U.S. Government Printing Office; 2002.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Sparks GA. Charismatic leadership: An exploratory investigation of the techniques of influence. Published online 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pennington B, Belson K. Panthers’ Newton Stands Out in a Quieter Week of Player Protests. New York Times. October 2, 2017:D7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleArchives of Otolaryngology - Head & Neck Surgery
AbbreviationArch. Otolaryngol. Head. Neck Surg.
ISSN (print)0886-4470
ISSN (online)1538-361X
ScopeGeneral Medicine

Other styles