How to format your references using the Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Schleich WP. 2000. Engineering decoherence. Nature 403: 256–257.
A journal article with 2 authors
Rowe C, Healy SD. 2011. Evolution. Is bigger always better? Science (New York, N.Y.) 333: 708–709.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hauke P, Tagliacozzo L, Lewenstein M. 2012. Physics. Speeding up quantum field theories. Science (New York, N.Y.) 336: 1122–1123.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Campbell PJ, Yachida S, Mudie LJ, Stephens PJ, Pleasance ED, Stebbings LA, Morsberger LA, Latimer C, McLaren S, Lin M-L, et al. 2010. The patterns and dynamics of genomic instability in metastatic pancreatic cancer. Nature 467: 1109–1113.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
von Eye A, Mun E-Y. 2012. Log-Linear Modeling. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Escobar S (Ed.). 2010. Functional and Constraint Logic Programming: 18th International Workshop, WFLP 2009, Brasilia, Brazil, June 28, 2009, Revised Selected Papers. Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Piattoni S. 2016. Exploring European Union Macro-regional Strategies through the Lens of Multilevel Governance. In A ‘Macro-regional’ Europe in the Making: Theoretical Approaches and Empirical Evidence, Gänzle S, , Kern K (eds). Palgrave Macmillan UK: London; 75–97.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems.

Blog post
Hale T. 2016. Somebody Has Found Another ‘Giant Spoon’ On Mars. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1976. Review of Ohio State Plan for the Education of Handicapped Children. No. 088676. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Filomena TP. 2010. Technology portfolio and capacity expansion under uncertainty. Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Feeney K. 2008. Salads, Sandwiches, And Parking. New York Times: NJ6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Schleich, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Schleich, 2000; Rowe and Healy, 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Rowe and Healy, 2011)
  • Three authors: (Hauke et al., 2012)
  • Four or more authors: (Campbell et al., 2010)

About the journal

Full journal titleAquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems
AbbreviationAquat. Conserv.
ISSN (print)1052-7613
ISSN (online)1099-0755
ScopeAquatic Science
Nature and Landscape Conservation

Other styles