How to format your references using the Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Whitesides GM. 2006. The origins and the future of microfluidics. Nature 442: 368–373.
A journal article with 2 authors
Muijres FT, Dickinson MH. 2014. Bird flight: Fly with a little flap from your friends. Nature 505: 295–296.
A journal article with 3 authors
Abu-Raddad LJ, Patnaik P, Kublin JG. 2006. Dual infection with HIV and malaria fuels the spread of both diseases in sub-Saharan Africa. Science (New York, N.Y.) 314: 1603–1606.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Zhu Y, Cao C, Tao S, Chu W, Wu Z, Li Y. 2014. Ultrathin nickel hydroxide and oxide nanosheets: synthesis, characterizations and excellent supercapacitor performances. Scientific reports 4: 5787.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Alexandridis AK, Zapranis AD. 2014. Wavelet Neural Networks. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Hawksworth DL, Bull AT (Eds.). 2008. Biodiversity and Conservation in Europe. Springer Netherlands: Dordrecht.
A chapter in an edited book
Kafadar AM, Uzan M, Tanriverdi T, Sanus GZ, Uzun H, Kaynar MY, Kuday C. 2008. Cerebrospinal fluid soluble Fas and Fas ligand levels after aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage. In Cerebral Vasospasm: New Strategies in Research and Treatment, Kırış T, , Zhang JH (eds). Springer: Vienna; 17–22.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems.

Blog post
Fang J. 2014. All-Nighters May Give You False Memories. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1976. Bilingual Education: An Unmet Need. No. MWD-76-25. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lanigan LG. 2012. Effects of Two Cancer Genes, HTLV-1 Tax and E-Cadherin, on Cancer Development and Progression. Doctoral dissertation, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kishkovsky S. 2016. A Low-Key Birthday for Putin: Just 450 Roses. New York Times: A6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Whitesides, 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Whitesides, 2006; Muijres and Dickinson, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Muijres and Dickinson, 2014)
  • Three authors: (Abu-Raddad et al., 2006)
  • Four or more authors: (Zhu et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleAquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems
AbbreviationAquat. Conserv.
ISSN (print)1052-7613
ISSN (online)1099-0755
ScopeAquatic Science
Nature and Landscape Conservation

Other styles