How to format your references using the Applied Mathematics & Optimization citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Applied Mathematics & Optimization. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Wellems, T.E.: Plasmodium chloroquine resistance and the search for a replacement antimalarial drug. Science. 298, 124–126 (2002)
A journal article with 2 authors
McFarland, E.W., Tang, J.: A photovoltaic device structure based on internal electron emission. Nature. 421, 616–618 (2003)
A journal article with 3 authors
Scholey, J.M., Brust-Mascher, I., Mogilner, A.: Cell division. Nature. 422, 746–752 (2003)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Schaefer, B.F., Turner, S., Parkinson, I., Rogers, N., Hawkesworth, C.: Evidence for recycled Archaean oceanic mantle lithosphere in the Azores plume. Nature. 420, 304–307 (2002)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Weiss, J.: Handbook of Ion Chromatography. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany (2016)
An edited book
Nurse, C.A., Gonzalez, C., Peers, C., Prabhakar, N. eds: Arterial Chemoreception: From Molecules to Systems. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht (2012)
A chapter in an edited book
Baartse, M., Meer, K.: An Algebraic Proof of the Real Number PCP Theorem. In: Italiano, G.F., Pighizzini, G., and Sannella, D.T. (eds.) Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science 2015: 40th International Symposium, MFCS 2015, Milan, Italy, August 24-28, 2015, Proceedings, Part II. pp. 50–61. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg (2015)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Applied Mathematics & Optimization.

Blog post
Davis, J.: Ancient Horseshoe Crabs Are Dying In Scores Off The Japanese Coast,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Airport Financing: Annual Funding As Much As $3 Billion Less Than Planned Development. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (1999)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Heyen, C.: Two predictors of smoking behaviors in the LGBTQ population: Anxiety and internalized homophobia, (2015)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kishkovsky, S.: With Orthodoxy’s Revival in Russia, Religious Media Also Rise, (2008)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleApplied Mathematics & Optimization
AbbreviationAppl. Math. Optim.
ISSN (print)0095-4616
ISSN (online)1432-0606
ScopeApplied Mathematics
Control and Optimization

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