How to format your references using the Applied Mathematics & Optimization citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Applied Mathematics & Optimization. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Alonso, J.-M.: Neuroscience. Neurons find strength through synchrony in the brain. Science. 312, 1604–1605 (2006)
A journal article with 2 authors
Kereszt, A., Kondorosi, E.: Plant science. Unlocking the door to invasion. Science. 331, 865–866 (2011)
A journal article with 3 authors
Maurer, S.M., Firestone, R.B., Scriver, C.R.: Science’s neglected legacy. Nature. 405, 117–120 (2000)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Smith, A.E., Slepchenko, B.M., Schaff, J.C., Loew, L.M., Macara, I.G.: Systems analysis of Ran transport. Science. 295, 488–491 (2002)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kramer, A., Legeard, B.: Model-Based Testing Essentials. John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken, NJ (2016)
An edited book
Elgamel, M.A.: Interconnect Noise Optimization in Nanometer Technologies. Springer US, Boston, MA (2006)
A chapter in an edited book
Augot, D., Betti, E., Orsini, E.: An Introduction to Linear and Cyclic Codes. In: Sala, M., Sakata, S., Mora, T., Traverso, C., and Perret, L. (eds.) Gröbner Bases, Coding, and Cryptography. pp. 47–68. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg (2009)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Applied Mathematics & Optimization.

Blog post
Andrew, E.: Captive Giant Pandas May Need To Form A Fight Club To Save The Species,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: FCC: Competitive Service Safeguards for Local Exchange Carrier Provision of Commercial Mobile Radio Services and Implementation of Section 601(d) of the Telecommunications Act of 1996. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (1997)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Goldner, V.R.: Arizona nurses’ attitudes toward legislated minimum staffing ratios: Impact on the workplace, (2010)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow, K.: Safe, for Now, (2002)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleApplied Mathematics & Optimization
AbbreviationAppl. Math. Optim.
ISSN (print)0095-4616
ISSN (online)1432-0606
ScopeApplied Mathematics
Control and Optimization

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