How to format your references using the Annual Review of Pathology: Mechanisms of Disease citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Annual Review of Pathology: Mechanisms of Disease. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Macilwain C. 2006. Ticking the right boxes. Nature. 439(7076):533
A journal article with 2 authors
Singer PA, Daar AS. 2001. Harnessing genomics and biotechnology to improve global health equity. Science. 294(5540):87–89
A journal article with 3 authors
Saeed Y, Singh N, Schwingenschlögl U. 2014. Superior thermoelectric response in the 3R phases of hydrated NaxRhO2. Sci. Rep. 4:4390
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Liu T, Zhang Y, Cai JW, Pan HY. 2014. Thermally robust Mo/CoFeB/MgO trilayers with strong perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. Sci. Rep. 4:5895

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Gros D, Lannoo K. 2004. The Euro Capital Market. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd
An edited book
Florentine M, Popper AN, Fay RR, eds. 2011. Loudness, Vol. 37. New York, NY: Springer. XIV, 290 p pp.
A chapter in an edited book
Sunderland N, Kendall E, Marshall CA, Barlow L. 2016. I’ll Paint you a Picture and You’ll Hear my Story: Broadening the Scope of Narrative Research for Arts-Based Service Learning. In Engaging First Peoples in Arts-Based Service Learning: Towards Respectful and Mutually Beneficial Educational Practices, ed B-L Bartleet, D Bennett, A Power, N Sunderland, pp. 71–81. Cham: Springer International Publishing

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Annual Review of Pathology: Mechanisms of Disease.

Blog post
Andrew E. 2015. What Does The Inside Of A Kangaroo’s Pouch Look Like? IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1974. Congressional Budget Reform: What Are Its Prospects? 094568, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Slade MR. 2008. The adaptive nature of organizational silence: A cybernetic exploration of the hidden factory. Doctoral dissertation thesis. George Washington University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey G. 2010. Injuries Gain Attention As Football Feels Pain. New York Times, Sep. 22, p. B15

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1, 2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleAnnual Review of Pathology: Mechanisms of Disease
AbbreviationAnnu. Rev. Pathol.
ISSN (print)1553-4006
ISSN (online)1553-4014
ScopePathology and Forensic Medicine

Other styles