How to format your references using the Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Murray NW. Astronomy. Evidence of things not seen. Science. 2012 Jun;336(6085):1121–2.
A journal article with 2 authors
Weatherhead EC, Andersen SB. The search for signs of recovery of the ozone layer. Nature. 2006 May;441(7089):39–45.
A journal article with 3 authors
MacDonald MP, Spalding GC, Dholakia K. Microfluidic sorting in an optical lattice. Nature. 2003 Nov;426(6965):421–4.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Perfit MR, Cann JR, Fornari DJ, Engels J, Smith DK, Ridley WI, et al. Interaction of sea water and lava during submarine eruptions at mid-ocean ridges. Nature. 2003 Nov;426(6962):62–5.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Moeller R. IT Audit, Control, and Security. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2010.
An edited book
Ansari AR, editor. Advances in Applied Mathematics. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
Breitner J, Graf J, Hecker M, Mohr M, Snelting G. On Improvements of Low-Deterministic Security. In: Piessens F, Viganò L, editors. Principles of Security and Trust: 5th International Conference, POST 2016, Held as Part of the European Joint Conferences on Theory and Practice of Software, ETAPS 2016, Eindhoven, The Netherlands, April 2–8, 2016, Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2016; pp 68–88.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism.

Blog post
O`Callaghan J. You Can Now Download Stephen Hawking’s Voice Software For Free [Internet]. IFLScience. 2015 Aug [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. District of Columbia Public Education: Agencies Have Enhanced Internal Controls Over Federal Payments for School Improvement, But More Consistent Monitoring Needed. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2010.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kyereboah R. Criteria For Appointing Board Members to Corporate Boards in Ghana. 2015

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Dannenberg L. In the Air on the Day the World Changed. New York Times. 2007 Sep;C6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleAnnals of Nutrition & Metabolism
AbbreviationAnn. Nutr. Metab.
ISSN (print)0250-6807
ISSN (online)1421-9697
ScopeMedicine (miscellaneous)
Nutrition and Dietetics

Other styles