How to format your references using the Annals of Clinical & Laboratory Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Annals of Clinical & Laboratory Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Steinhardt P. Big Bang blunder bursts the multiverse bubble. Nature. 2014 Jun 5;510(7503):9.
A journal article with 2 authors
Stechmann A, Cavalier-Smith T. Rooting the eukaryote tree by using a derived gene fusion. Science. 2002 Jul 5;297(5578):89–91.
A journal article with 3 authors
Brown RR, Deletic A, Wong THF. Interdisciplinarity: How to catalyse collaboration. Nature. 2015 Sep 17;525(7569):315–7.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Li Q, Wang X, Xin Y, Zhang Z, Zhang Y, Hao C, et al. A unified intermediate and mechanism for soot combustion on potassium-supported oxides. Sci Rep. 2014 Apr 17;4:4725.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kukushkin A. Radio Wave Propagation in the Marine Boundary Layer. Weinheim, FRG: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2004.
An edited book
Kosowski A, Walukiewicz I, editors. Fundamentals of Computation Theory: 20th International Symposium, FCT 2015, Gdańsk, Poland, August 17-19, 2015, Proceedings. 1st ed. 2015. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015. XIX, 395 p. 61 illus. (Lecture Notes in Computer Science; vol. 9210).
A chapter in an edited book
Sovacool BK, Linnér B-O. Bloated Bodies: The Political Economy of Hurricane Katrina Recovery. In: Linnér B-O, editor. The Political Economy of Climate Change Adaptation. London: Palgrave Macmillan UK; 2016. p. 81–109.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Annals of Clinical & Laboratory Science.

Blog post
Hale T. Over 300 Reindeer Struck Dead By Lightning In Norway [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Opportunities for Improving the Management of DOD Computer Systems. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1983 Jun. Report No.: 121729.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Yarijanian AA. Cardborigami’s Strategic Business Plan to Address Urban Homelessness [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Koblin J. NBC Will Bring Back ‘Will & Grace.’ New York Times. 2017 Jan 18;C2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleAnnals of Clinical & Laboratory Science
ISSN (print)0091-7370
ISSN (online)1550-8080

Other styles