How to format your references using the Annals of Clinical & Laboratory Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Annals of Clinical & Laboratory Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Clarke J. Paleontology. Feathers before flight. Science. 2013 May 10;340(6133):690–2.
A journal article with 2 authors
Striedter GF, Srinivasan S. BRAIN EVOLUTION. Knowing when to fold them. Science. 2015 Jul 3;349(6243):31–2.
A journal article with 3 authors
Poulsen CJ, Tabor C, White JD. CLIMATE CHANGE. Long-term climate forcing by atmospheric oxygen concentrations. Science. 2015 Jun 12;348(6240):1238–41.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Boyer V, Marino AM, Pooser RC, Lett PD. Entangled images from four-wave mixing. Science. 2008 Jul 25;321(5888):544–7.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Yanni SB. Translational ADMET for Drug Therapy. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc; 2015.
An edited book
Wang J, editor. Stereoselective Alkene Synthesis. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2012. VIII, 276 p. (Topics in Current Chemistry; vol. 327).
A chapter in an edited book
Andrade WL, Machado PDL, Alves ELG, Almeida DR. Test Case Generation of Embedded Real-Time Systems with Interruptions for FreeRTOS. In: Oliveira MVM, Woodcock J, editors. Formal Methods: Foundations and Applications: 12th Brazilian Symposium on Formal Methods, SBMF 2009 Gramado, Brazil, August 19-21, 2009 Revised Selected Papers. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2009. p. 54–69. (Hutchison D, Kanade T, Kittler J, Kleinberg JM, Mattern F, Mitchell JC, et al., editors. Lecture Notes in Computer Science).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Annals of Clinical & Laboratory Science.

Blog post
Luntz S. Methane Hunting Tool Could Boost The Search For Extraterrestrials [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Reduction in Demonstration Project Funding. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1996 May. Report No.: RCED-96-172R.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Mathes MD. Exploring Factors That Enabled Financial Advisors and Their Firms to Improve Professional Performance After 2008 [Doctoral dissertation]. [Scottsdale, AZ]: Northcentral University; 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Burghardt LF. The Legacies They Left. New York Times. 2006 Jan 1;14LI7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleAnnals of Clinical & Laboratory Science
ISSN (print)0091-7370
ISSN (online)1550-8080

Other styles