How to format your references using the Annals of Clinical & Laboratory Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Annals of Clinical & Laboratory Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Favero I. Optomechanics: Listening to quantum grains of sound. Nature. 2015 Apr 23;520(7548):441–2.
A journal article with 2 authors
Galarreta M, Hestrin S. Spike transmission and synchrony detection in networks of GABAergic interneurons. Science. 2001 Jun 22;292(5525):2295–9.
A journal article with 3 authors
Cook RL, Martin PJ, Geremia JM. Optical coherent state discrimination using a closed-loop quantum measurement. Nature. 2007 Apr 12;446(7137):774–7.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Huang P-R, He Y, Cao C, Lu Z-H. Impact of lattice distortion and electron doping on α-MoO3 electronic structure. Sci Rep. 2014 Nov 20;4:7131.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Möller G. Geotechnik. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2013.
An edited book
Xu G. Orbits: 2nd Order Singularity-free Solutions. 2nd ed. 2013. Xu J, editor. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2013. XXIII, 426 p.
A chapter in an edited book
Rahmandoust M, Ayatollahi MR. CNT/FRP Composites. In: Ayatollahi MR, editor. Characterization of Carbon Nanotube Based Composites under Consideration of Defects. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016. p. 177–217. (Advanced Structured Materials).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Annals of Clinical & Laboratory Science.

Blog post
Fang J. New Drug Boosts Nerve Regrowth in Rats With Spinal Cord Injuries [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. VA Student Financial Aid: Management Actions Needed to Reduce Overlap in Approving Education and Training Programs and to Assess State Approving Agencies. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2007 Mar. Report No.: GAO-07-384.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ekici T. An Investigation of Credit Card Debt: The Effect of Price and Income Expectations and the Impact on Consumption [Doctoral dissertation]. [Columbus, OH]: Ohio State University; 2006.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gorman J. All Aboard an ‘Alien Starship.’ New York Times. 2017 Jan 9;D2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleAnnals of Clinical & Laboratory Science
ISSN (print)0091-7370
ISSN (online)1550-8080

Other styles