How to format your references using the Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Davé R. Computational astrophysics: Monstrous galaxies unmasked. Nature 2015;525:465–6.
A journal article with 2 authors
Cohen JC, Hobbs HH. Genetics. Simple genetics for a complex disease. Science 2013;340:689–90.
A journal article with 3 authors
Stenner MD, Gauthier DJ, Neifeld MA. The speed of information in a “fast-light” optical medium. Nature 2003;425:695–8.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Dall’Osso F, Dominey-Howes D, Moore C, Summerhayes S, Withycombe G. The exposure of Sydney (Australia) to earthquake-generated tsunamis, storms and sea level rise: a probabilistic multi-hazard approach. Sci Rep 2014;4:7401.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Wassenaar TM. Bacteria. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2011.
An edited book
Spanagel R, Mann KF, editors. Drugs for Relapse Prevention of Alcoholism. Basel: Birkhäuser; 2005.
A chapter in an edited book
Aguilella VM, Queralt-Martín M, Alcaraz A. Bacterial Porins. In: Delcour AH, editor. Electrophysiology of Unconventional Channels and Pores, Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015, p. 101–21.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain Medicine.

Blog post
Andrew E. New Method Could Reveal Your Entire Viral Infection History With A Single Drop Of Blood. IFLScience 2015. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Education Reform: School-Based Management Results in Changes in Instruction and Budgeting. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1994.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Polk RL. Examining students with disabilities in a linked learning pathway. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach, 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Rothenberg B. Once a Prodigy, Now Stronger for Her Struggles. New York Times 2017:B10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleAnaesthesia Critical Care & Pain Medicine
AbbreviationAnaesth. Crit. Care Pain Med.
ISSN (print)2352-5568

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