How to format your references using the Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Churchland PS. Self-representation in nervous systems. Science 2002;296:308–10.
A journal article with 2 authors
Soldner F, Jaenisch R. Medicine. iPSC disease modeling. Science 2012;338:1155–6.
A journal article with 3 authors
Webster AJ, Payne RJH, Pagel M. Molecular phylogenies link rates of evolution and speciation. Science 2003;301:478.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Liu W, Su J, Jiang J, Li X, Ye Q, Zhou H, et al. Two mixed-NH3/amine platinum (II) anticancer complexes featuring a dichloroacetate moiety in the leaving group. Sci Rep 2013;3:2464.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Eisner H. Managing Complex Systems. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2005.
An edited book
Dick G, Browne WN, Whigham P, Zhang M, Bui LT, Ishibuchi H, et al., editors. Simulated Evolution and Learning: 10th International Conference, SEAL 2014, Dunedin, New Zealand, December 15-18, 2014. Proceedings. vol. 8886. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
Molnár Z, López-Bendito G, Blakey D, Thompson A, Higashi S. The Earliest Thalamocortical Interactions. In: Erzurumlu R, Guido W, Molnár Z, editors. Development and Plasticity in Sensory Thalamus and Cortex, Boston, MA: Springer US; 2006, p. 54–78.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain Medicine.

Blog post
Davis J. Pinching Figs Could Help Explain The Origin Of Our Fine Motor Skills. IFLScience 2016. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Land Management Systems: Progress and Risks in Developing BLM’s Land and Mineral Record System. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1995.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kim H. Empathy in the Early Childhood Classroom: Exploring Teachers’ Perceptions, Understanding and Practices. Doctoral dissertation. Indiana University, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Saslow L. Stony Brook Medical Center Names Chief Executive. New York Times 2006:14LI2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleAnaesthesia Critical Care & Pain Medicine
AbbreviationAnaesth. Crit. Care Pain Med.
ISSN (print)2352-5568

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