How to format your references using the Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Zoback MD. Earth science. Strength of the San Andreas. Nature 2000;405:31–2.
A journal article with 2 authors
Harper NS, McAlpine D. Optimal neural population coding of an auditory spatial cue. Nature 2004;430:682–6.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kaochar S, Paek AL, Weinert T. Genetics. Replication error amplified. Science 2010;329:911–3.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Xu Z, Zhu X, Yu Y, Zhang N, Zhao J. Super-luminescent jet light generated by femtosecond laser pulses. Sci Rep 2014;4:3892.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Sears RW, Chard KM. Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2016.
An edited book
Narey M, editor. Making Meaning: Constructing Multimodal Perspectives of Language, Literacy, and Learning through Arts-based Early Childhood Education. vol. 2. Boston, MA: Springer US; 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
Scott J, Buytaert N, Cannell K, D’Souza M, Gault D, Gielis D, et al. Tabular Forms. In: Buytaert N, Cannell K, D’Souza M, Gault D, Gielis D, Hartman R, et al., editors. Expert Oracle Application Express, Berkeley, CA: Apress; 2015, p. 145–214.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain Medicine.

Blog post
Andrews R. Dengue Virus Is Zika’s Most Powerful Weapon – And Sometimes Its Greatest Weakness. IFLScience 2016. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Guaranteed Student Loan Program Bankruptcies. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1977.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hsu Y-C. A cultural psychosocial model for depression in elder care institutions: The roles of Socially Supportive Activity and self-transcendence. Doctoral dissertation. University of Arizona, 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kanter J. European Leaders, Reeling, Meet to Weigh Fallout of U.S. Election. New York Times 2016:A9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleAnaesthesia Critical Care & Pain Medicine
AbbreviationAnaesth. Crit. Care Pain Med.
ISSN (print)2352-5568

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