How to format your references using the American Journal of Orthodontics & Dentofacial Orthopedics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for American Journal of Orthodontics & Dentofacial Orthopedics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Lawler A. ASIAN-AMERICAN SCIENTISTS: Lee Case Births a Reluctant Activist. Science 2000;290(5494):1073.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Boettiger AN, Levine M. Synchronous and stochastic patterns of gene activation in the Drosophila embryo. Science 2009;325(5939):471–3.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Kellis M, Birren BW, Lander ES. Proof and evolutionary analysis of ancient genome duplication in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Nature 2004;428(6983):617–24.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Jørgensen LH, Mosbech M-B, Færgeman NJ, Graakjaer J, Jacobsen SV, Schrøder HD. Duplication in the microtubule-actin cross-linking factor 1 gene causes a novel neuromuscular condition. Sci. Rep. 2014;4:5180.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Lipiansky E. Electrical, Electronics, and Digital Hardware Essentials for Scientists and Engineers. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2012.
An edited book
1. Pasupuleti VK, Demain AL eds. Protein Hydrolysates in Biotechnology. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Uchihashi T, Kodera N, Ando T. Nanovisualization of Proteins in Action Using High-Speed AFM. In: Oberhauser AF, ed. Single-molecule Studies of Proteins New York, NY: Springer; 2013:119–47.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for American Journal of Orthodontics & Dentofacial Orthopedics.

Blog post
1. Luntz S. 2015’s Recording-Breaking Temperatures Will Be “New Normal” Very Soon. IFLScience 2016. Available at: Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. DOD Major Automated Information Systems: Improvements Can Be Made in Applying Leading Practices for Managing Risk and Testing. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2017.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Himschoot AR. Student perception of relevance of biology content to everyday life: A study in higher education biology courses. 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Branch J. The Deflategate Scientists Unlock Their Lab. New York Times September 21, 2016:SP1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleAmerican Journal of Orthodontics & Dentofacial Orthopedics
AbbreviationAm. J. Orthod. Dentofacial Orthop.
ISSN (print)0889-5406
ISSN (online)1097-6752
ScopeGeneral Medicine

Other styles