How to format your references using the American Journal of Orthodontics & Dentofacial Orthopedics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for American Journal of Orthodontics & Dentofacial Orthopedics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Moczek AP. Evolutionary biology: the origins of novelty. Nature 2011;473(7345):34–5.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Feuillet C, Eversole K. Plant science. Solving the maze. Science 2009;326(5956):1071–2.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Holman KT, Pivovar AM, Ward MD. Engineering crystal symmetry and polar order in molecular host frameworks. Science 2001;294(5548):1907–11.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Papadakis G, Tsortos A, Kordas A, et al. Acoustic detection of DNA conformation in genetic assays combined with PCR. Sci. Rep. 2013;3:2033.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Lane D. The Chief Information Officer’s Body of Knowledge. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2011.
An edited book
1. Kwaśnicka H, Jain LC eds. Innovations in Intelligent Image Analysis. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Borok S, Goldfarb I, Gol’dshtein V, Maas U. “Ghost” ILDM-Manifolds and Their Identification. In: Gorban AN, Kevrekidis IG, Theodoropoulos C, Kazantzis NK, Öttinger HC, eds. Model Reduction and Coarse-Graining Approaches for Multiscale Phenomena Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2006:55–79.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for American Journal of Orthodontics & Dentofacial Orthopedics.

Blog post
1. O`Callaghan J. Stunning New Vista Of Pluto Reveals Features Hidden In Darkness. IFLScience 2015. Available at: Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Physical Infrastructure: Crosscutting Issues Planning Conference Report. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2001.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Luscinski A. Best Practices in Adult Online Learning. 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Nordland R, Timur S. Turkey Fires 15,000 More Public Workers in Crackdown. New York Times November 22, 2016:A11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleAmerican Journal of Orthodontics & Dentofacial Orthopedics
AbbreviationAm. J. Orthod. Dentofacial Orthop.
ISSN (print)0889-5406
ISSN (online)1097-6752
ScopeGeneral Medicine

Other styles