How to format your references using the American Journal of Orthodontics & Dentofacial Orthopedics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for American Journal of Orthodontics & Dentofacial Orthopedics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Labeyrie L. PALEOCLIMATE: Glacial Climate Instability. Science 2000;290(5498):1905–7.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Nijhout HF, Grunert LW. The cellular and physiological mechanism of wing-body scaling in Manduca sexta. Science 2010;330(6011):1693–5.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Hansel DE, Eipper BA, Ronnett GV. Neuropeptide Y functions as a neuroproliferative factor. Nature 2001;410(6831):940–4.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Rosenberg ES, Altfeld M, Poon SH, et al. Immune control of HIV-1 after early treatment of acute infection. Nature 2000;407(6803):523–6.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Massad JJ, Cagna DR, Goodacre CJ, Wicks RA, Ahuja SA. Application of the Neutral Zone in Prosthodontics. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2017.
An edited book
1. Kozlov VV, Buslaev AP, Bugaev AS, Yashina MV, Schadschneider A, Schreckenberg M eds. Traffic and Granular Flow ’11. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Marti CN, Cole RT, Giamouzis G, Butler J. Digoxin, Diuretics, and Vasodilators in Patients with Heart Failure. In: Baliga RR, Haas GJ, eds. Management of Heart Failure: Volume 1: Medical London: Springer; 2015:47–75.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for American Journal of Orthodontics & Dentofacial Orthopedics.

Blog post
1. Fang J. Female Pigs Recognize The Sex of Sperm. IFLScience 2014. Available at: https://www.iflscience.com/plants-and-animals/female-pigs-recognize-sex-sperm/. Accessed October 30, 2018.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Air Traffic Control: Status of FAA’s Standard Terminal Automation Replacement System Project. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1997.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Terry EJ. In search of leadership: A look at women presidents in Georgia’s two-year colleges and technical colleges. 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Kelly BKB, Writer A, has covered Chicago politics for eight years. CHICAGO AND ITS MAYOR, TWO YEARS LATER. New York Times April 13, 1985:123.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleAmerican Journal of Orthodontics & Dentofacial Orthopedics
AbbreviationAm. J. Orthod. Dentofacial Orthop.
ISSN (print)0889-5406
ISSN (online)1097-6752
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Orthodontics

Other styles