How to format your references using the American Journal of Orthodontics & Dentofacial Orthopedics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for American Journal of Orthodontics & Dentofacial Orthopedics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Macilwain C. World view: ERA of austerity. Nature 2010;466(7304):314.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Shirane M, Nakayama KI. Protrudin induces neurite formation by directional membrane trafficking. Science 2006;314(5800):818–21.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Myrskylä M, Kohler H-P, Billari FC. Advances in development reverse fertility declines. Nature 2009;460(7256):741–3.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Yamasaki A, Hara T, Maejima I, Sato M, Sato K, Sato K. Rer1p regulates the ER retention of immature rhodopsin and modulates its intracellular trafficking. Sci. Rep. 2014;4:5973.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Drake PP, Fabozzi FJ. Foundations and Applications of the Time Value of Money. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2009.
An edited book
1. Haubold B. Introduction to Computational Biology: An Evolutionary Approach. (Wiehe T, ed.). Basel: Birkhäuser; 2006.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Michielsen K, De Raedt H, De Raedt K. Deterministic Event-based Simulation of Universal Quantum Computation. In: Landau DP, Lewis SP, Schüttler H-B, eds. Computer Simulation Studies in Condensed-Matter Physics XVIII: Proceedings of the Eighteenth Workshop Athens, GA, USA, March 7–11, 2005 Springer Proceedings in Physics. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2006:32–6.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for American Journal of Orthodontics & Dentofacial Orthopedics.

Blog post
1. Taub B. Medical Marijuana Laws Lead To Decrease In Opioid Painkiller Use. IFLScience 2016. Available at: https://www.iflscience.com/health-and-medicine/medical-marijuana-laws-lead-to-decrease-in-opioid-painkiller-use/. Accessed October 30, 2018.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. U.S. Communications Policy: Issues for the 1990s. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1991.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Reser G. Assessing the Relationship between Adult Attachment and Differentiation of Self to Coparental Divorce Adjustment. 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
1. (nyt) SK. World Briefing | Europe: Russia: 21 Miners Killed In Blast. New York Times February 10, 2005:A10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleAmerican Journal of Orthodontics & Dentofacial Orthopedics
AbbreviationAm. J. Orthod. Dentofacial Orthop.
ISSN (print)0889-5406
ISSN (online)1097-6752
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Orthodontics

Other styles