How to format your references using the Alzheimer's Research & Therapy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Alzheimer's Research & Therapy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Vijayan M. Obituary. G.N. Ramachandran (1922-2001). Nature. 2001;411:544.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Le Borgne M, Shaw AS. Immunology. Do T cells have a cilium? Science. 2013;342:1177–8.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Sta Ana JL, Frankel MS, Berger KM. Biosecurity. Educating scientists about dual use. Science. 2009;326:1193.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Sumbre G, Muto A, Baier H, Poo M-M. Entrained rhythmic activities of neuronal ensembles as perceptual memory of time interval. Nature. 2008;456:102–6.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Paolella MS. Fundamental Probability. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2006.
An edited book
1. Doris K. Wide-Bandwidth High-Dynamic Range D/A Converters. van Roermund A, Leenaerts D, editors. Boston, MA: Springer US; 2006.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Hamm JA, Hoffman L. Working with Covariance: Using Higher-Order Factors in Structural Equation Modeling with Trust Constructs. In: Shockley E, Neal TMS, PytlikZillig LM, Bornstein BH, editors. Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Trust: Towards Theoretical and Methodological Integration. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016. p. 85–97.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Alzheimer's Research & Therapy.

Blog post
1. Davis J. No Surprise As May Breaks Eighth Global Temperature Record In A Row [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Routine Disclosure of Broadcaster Financial Records. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1980 Mar. Report No.: 111721.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Sachdev NA. An Evaluation of the District of Columbia Summer Youth Employment Program [Doctoral dissertation]. [Washington, DC]: George Washington University; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Shpigel B. Taking Twisted Turns. New York Times. 2016 Sep 10;SP7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,1].
This sentence cites four references [1,1,1,1].

About the journal

Full journal titleAlzheimer's Research & Therapy
AbbreviationAlzheimers. Res. Ther.
ISSN (online)1758-9193
ScopeClinical Neurology
Cognitive Neuroscience

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