How to format your references using the Alzheimer's Research & Therapy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Alzheimer's Research & Therapy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Mahadevan MS. Genetics. Exposing a DUX tale. Science. 2010;329:1607–8.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Zheng J, Jia Z. Structural biology: tiny enzyme uses context to succeed. Nature. 2013;497:445–6.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Stanger BZ, Tanaka AJ, Melton DA. Organ size is limited by the number of embryonic progenitor cells in the pancreas but not the liver. Nature. 2007;445:886–91.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Kumar D, Sane A, Gohil S, Bandaru PR, Bhattacharya S, Ghosh S. Spreading of triboelectrically charged granular matter. Sci Rep. 2014;4:5275.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Toutain L, Minaburo A. Local Networks and the Internet. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2013.
An edited book
1. Albach H, Meffert H, Pinkwart A, Reichwald R, editors. Management of Permanent Change. Wiesbaden: Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Gao Z-K, Jin N-D, Wang W-X. Community Detection in Flow Pattern Complex Network. In: Jin N-D, Wang W-X, editors. Nonlinear Analysis of Gas-Water/Oil-Water Two-Phase Flow in Complex Networks. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2014. p. 25–34.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Alzheimer's Research & Therapy.

Blog post
1. Carpineti A. Researchers Create An Artificial Skin That Can Sense Changes In Temperature [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2017 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Acquisition of Compact and Subcompact Passenger Vehicles To Conserve Fuel. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1976 Mar. Report No.: 089569.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Reser G. Assessing the Relationship between Adult Attachment and Differentiation of Self to Coparental Divorce Adjustment [Doctoral dissertation]. [Scottsdale, AZ]: Northcentral University; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Lowry MP. Fire Starter. New York Times. 2014 Oct 17;MM54.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleAlzheimer's Research & Therapy
AbbreviationAlzheimers. Res. Ther.
ISSN (online)1758-9193
ScopeClinical Neurology
Cognitive Neuroscience

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