How to format your references using the AI & SOCIETY citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for AI & SOCIETY. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Moore DD (2007) Physiology. Sister act. Science 316:1436–1438
A journal article with 2 authors
Tobias SM, Cattaneo F (2013) Shear-driven dynamo waves at high magnetic Reynolds number. Nature 497:463–465
A journal article with 3 authors
Zanardi I, Zifarelli G, Pusch M (2013) An optical assay of the transport activity of ClC-7. Sci Rep 3:1231
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Choe SB, Acremann Y, Scholl A, et al (2004) Vortex core-driven magnetization dynamics. Science 304:420–422

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Prud’Homme R (2014) Flows and Chemical Reactions in an Electromagnetic Field. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Wu X (2015) Structure-Preserving Algorithms for Oscillatory Differential Equations II, 1st ed. 2015. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Parpinelli RS, Lopes HS (2012) Population Resizing Using Nonlinear Dynamics in an Ecology-Based Approach. In: Yin H, Costa JAF, Barreto G (eds) Intelligent Data Engineering and Automated Learning - IDEAL 2012: 13th International Conference, Natal, Brazil, August 29-31, 2012. Proceedings. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 27–34

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for AI & SOCIETY.

Blog post
Andrews R (2016) Sea Snakes Have A Unique Sense For Detecting Underwater Movement. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1991) Highway Trust Fund: Revenue Sources, Uses, and Spending Controls. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Meng W (2014) Synthesis and design of microwave wideband filters and components. Doctoral dissertation, University of Maryland, College Park

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kishkovsky S (1999) A Pushkin Celebration on His Family’s Estate. New York Times 53

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Moore 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Moore 2007; Tobias and Cattaneo 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Tobias and Cattaneo 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Choe et al. 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleAI & SOCIETY
AbbreviationAI Soc.
ISSN (print)0951-5666
ISSN (online)1435-5655
Artificial Intelligence
Human-Computer Interaction

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