How to format your references using the AI & SOCIETY citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for AI & SOCIETY. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Chan MHW (2008) Supersolidity. Science 319:1207–1209
A journal article with 2 authors
Leuenberger MN, Loss D (2001) Quantum computing in molecular magnets. Nature 410:789–793
A journal article with 3 authors
O’Gorman CM, Fuller HT, Dyer PS (2009) Discovery of a sexual cycle in the opportunistic fungal pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus. Nature 457:471–474
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Kachkanov V, Leung B, Song J, et al (2014) Structural dynamics of GaN microcrystals in Evolutionary Selection Selective Area Growth probed by X-ray microdiffraction. Sci Rep 4:4651

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Wells JT (2017) Corporate Fraud Handbook. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Sargis EJ, Dagosto M (eds) (2008) Mammalian Evolutionary Morphology: A Tribute to Frederick S. Szalay. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht
A chapter in an edited book
Edwards D, Deed C, Edwards A (2014) Learning in Technologically-Mediated Spaces in Open-Plan Settings. In: Prain V, Cox P, Deed C, et al. (eds) Adapting to Teaching and Learning in Open-Plan Schools. SensePublishers, Rotterdam, pp 79–93

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for AI & SOCIETY.

Blog post
Fang J (2016) This Lacewing Bacterium Kills Only Males. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2014) Federally Funded Research Centers: Agency Reviews of Employee Compensation and Center Performance. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
White AE (2015) Female ministers in pastoral leadership: A phenomenological study. Doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hollander S (2002) Colleges Like Sarah Lawrence Are Putting Poets in Motion. New York Times D1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Chan 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Leuenberger and Loss 2001; Chan 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Leuenberger and Loss 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Kachkanov et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleAI & SOCIETY
AbbreviationAI Soc.
ISSN (print)0951-5666
ISSN (online)1435-5655
Artificial Intelligence
Human-Computer Interaction

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