How to format your references using the AI & SOCIETY citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for AI & SOCIETY. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Visser AW (2007) Ocean science. Biomixing of the oceans? Science 316:838–839
A journal article with 2 authors
Chavis P, Westbrook G (2001) Integrins mediate functional pre- and postsynaptic maturation at a hippocampal synapse. Nature 411:317–321
A journal article with 3 authors
Redford KH, Jensen DB, Breheny JJ (2012) Ecology. Integrating the captive and the wild. Science 338:1157–1158
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Van Wassenbergh S, Herrel A, Adriaens D, et al (2006) Evolution: a catfish that can strike its prey on land. Nature 440:881

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Zhang S-L (2012) Raman Spectroscopy and its Application in Nanostructures. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Peters GW, Matsui T (eds) (2015) Modern Methodology and Applications in Spatial-Temporal Modeling. Springer Japan, Tokyo
A chapter in an edited book
Nicolosi G, Korthals M (2008) Narrative Strategies in Food Advertising. In: Coff C, Barling D, Korthals M, Nielsen T (eds) Ethical Traceability and Communicating Food. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp 63–78

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for AI & SOCIETY.

Blog post
Davis J (2016) Neurons In Mice Found To Be Influenced By Environment Rather Than Genetics. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1995) Federal Lands: Information on the Use and Impact of Off-Highway Vehicles. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Eggers M von (2017) Searching for a Post-Jungian Psychophysical Reality in Recovery from Addiction. Doctoral dissertation, Pacifica Graduate Institute

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hubbard B (2017) 27 Years After Protest, a Victory Lap for Saudi Women. New York Times A6

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Visser 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Chavis and Westbrook 2001; Visser 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Chavis and Westbrook 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Van Wassenbergh et al. 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleAI & SOCIETY
AbbreviationAI Soc.
ISSN (print)0951-5666
ISSN (online)1435-5655
Artificial Intelligence
Human-Computer Interaction

Other styles