How to format your references using the Agriculture & Food Security citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Agriculture & Food Security. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Rolison DR. Catalytic nanoarchitectures--the importance of nothing and the unimportance of periodicity. Science. 2003;299:1698–701.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Jennings MD, Pavitt GD. eIF5 has GDI activity necessary for translational control by eIF2 phosphorylation. Nature. 2010;465:378–81.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Swiontek SE, Pulsifer DP, Lakhtakia A. Optical sensing of analytes in aqueous solutions with a multiple surface-plasmon-polariton-wave platform. Sci Rep. 2013;3:1409.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Colaprete A, Barnes JR, Haberle RM, Hollingsworth JL, Kieffer HH, Titus TN. Albedo of the south pole on Mars determined by topographic forcing of atmosphere dynamics. Nature. 2005;435:184–8.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Kromidas S. Der HPLC-Experte. D-69451 Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH; 2014.
An edited book
1. Idowu SO, editor. Key Initiatives in Corporate Social Responsibility: Global Dimension of CSR in Corporate Entities. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Gheorghe G, Neuhaus S, Crispo B. xESB: An Enterprise Service Bus for Access and Usage Control Policy Enforcement. In: Nishigaki M, Jøsang A, Murayama Y, Marsh S, editors. Trust Management IV: 4th IFIP WG 1111 International Conference, IFIPTM 2010, Morioka, Japan, June 16-18, 2010 Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2010. p. 63–78.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Agriculture & Food Security.

Blog post
1. Carpineti A. Swirling Cool Jet Reveals A Growing Black Hole [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Independent Media Development Abroad: Challenges Exist in Implementing U.S. Efforts and Measuring Results. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2005 Jul. Report No.: GAO-05-803.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Warfield BS. Speaking of the Self: Theorizing the Dialogical Dimensions of Ethical Agency [Doctoral dissertation]. [Tampa, FL]: University of South Florida; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Kelly R. Postmodern Conveniences. New York Times. 2002 Jun 9;724.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleAgriculture & Food Security
AbbreviationAgric. & Food Secur.
ISSN (online)2048-7010

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