How to format your references using the Agriculture & Food Security citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Agriculture & Food Security. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Pennisi E. Neuroscience. Monarchs check clock to chart migration route. Science. 2003;300:1216–7.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Fukuchi-Shimogori T, Grove EA. Neocortex patterning by the secreted signaling molecule FGF8. Science. 2001;294:1071–4.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Peñuelas J, Rutishauser T, Filella I. Ecology. Phenology feedbacks on climate change. Science. 2009;324:887–8.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Siretanu I, Ebeling D, Andersson MP, Stipp SLS, Philipse A, Stuart MC, et al. Direct observation of ionic structure at solid-liquid interfaces: a deep look into the Stern Layer. Sci Rep. 2014;4:4956.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Smith C, Meeking D. How to Succeed at the Medical Interview. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2013.
An edited book
1. Shamrukh M, editor. Riverbank Filtration for Water Security in Desert Countries. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Austin J, Bentkover J, Chait L. Tools for Transformational Strategic Planning. In: Austin J, Bentkover J, Chait L, editors. Leading Strategic Change in an Era of Healthcare Transformation. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016. p. 47–70.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Agriculture & Food Security.

Blog post
1. Fang J. Two New Sub-Atomic Particles Discovered at CERN [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Aviation Weather: FAA and the National Weather Service Are Considering Plans to Consolidate Weather Service Offices, but Face Significant Challenges. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2009 Sep. Report No.: GAO-09-761.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Narita D. Carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) and climate change mitigation: An analysis of economic optimality and policy making [Doctoral dissertation]. [New York, NY]: Columbia University; 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. McKINLEY J. New York State to Cover Tuition in Cuomo Plan. New York Times. 2017 Jan 3;A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleAgriculture & Food Security
AbbreviationAgric. & Food Secur.
ISSN (online)2048-7010

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