How to format your references using the Agricultural and Food Economics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Agricultural and Food Economics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bunz UHF (2005) Chemistry. How are alkynes scrambled? Science 308:216–217
A journal article with 2 authors
Dalton R, Cyranoski D (2000) Baja peninsula claims five victims in tragic accident. Nature 404:533
A journal article with 3 authors
Chou C-H, Chuang J-K, Chen F-C (2013) High-performance flexible waveguiding photovoltaics. Sci Rep 3:2244
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Calfon M, Zeng H, Urano F, et al (2002) IRE1 couples endoplasmic reticulum load to secretory capacity by processing the XBP-1 mRNA. Nature 415:92–96

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bonneau D, Fatu A, Souchet D (2014) Hydrodynamic Bearings. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Bernard A, Tichkiewitch S (eds) (2008) Methods and Tools for Effective Knowledge Life-Cycle-Management. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Nähler HT, Gronauer B (2016) Using Enhanced Nested Function Models for Strategic Product Development. In: Chechurin L (ed) Research and Practice on the Theory of Inventive Problem Solving (TRIZ): Linking Creativity, Engineering and Innovation. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 55–75

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Agricultural and Food Economics.

Blog post
O`Callaghan J (2016) It’s One Year Until A Total Solar Eclipse Sweeps Across America. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1978) Legislation Amending the Federal Fire Prevention and Control Act of 1974. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Boyle LL (2014) Relationship between managerial responsiveness, managerial approachability, and prosocial voice among acute-care registered nurses. Doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse L (2008) Justices, in Bias Case, Rule for Older Workers. New York Times A15

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Bunz 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Dalton and Cyranoski 2000; Bunz 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Dalton and Cyranoski 2000)
  • Three or more authors: (Calfon et al. 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleAgricultural and Food Economics
AbbreviationAgric. Food Econ.
ISSN (online)2193-7532

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