How to format your references using the Agricultural and Food Economics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Agricultural and Food Economics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hecht SS (2011) Perspective: Tackling the real issues. Nature 471:S18
A journal article with 2 authors
Jin H-J, Kaplan DL (2003) Mechanism of silk processing in insects and spiders. Nature 424:1057–1061
A journal article with 3 authors
Moran NA, McLaughlin HJ, Sorek R (2009) The dynamics and time scale of ongoing genomic erosion in symbiotic bacteria. Science 323:379–382
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Kühner D, Stahl M, Demircioglu DD, Bertsche U (2014) From cells to muropeptide structures in 24 h: peptidoglycan mapping by UPLC-MS. Sci Rep 4:7494

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ham BM (2011) Proteomics of Biological Systems. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Kotzé P, Marsden G, Lindgaard G, et al (eds) (2013) Human-Computer Interaction – INTERACT 2013: 14th IFIP TC 13 International Conference, Cape Town, South Africa, September 2-6, 2013, Proceedings, Part III. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Grobman S, Cerra A (2016) No Second Chance. In: Cerra A (ed) The Second Economy: The Race for Trust, Treasure and Time in the Cybersecurity War. Apress, Berkeley, CA, pp 59–75

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Agricultural and Food Economics.

Blog post
Carpineti C (2017) We Shared An Amazing Live Stream Of The Bottom Of The Pacific Ocean With You - Here Are Some Of The Coolest Things We Saw. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1988) [Comments on Protection of Pricing Information Under GSA Procurement for Telecommunications Services]. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Immaneni RN (2015) An efficient approach to machine learning based text classification through distributed computing. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Cooper M (2017) Hurricane Closes Houston Arts Center. New York Times C3

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Hecht 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Jin and Kaplan 2003; Hecht 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Jin and Kaplan 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Kühner et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleAgricultural and Food Economics
AbbreviationAgric. Food Econ.
ISSN (online)2193-7532

Other styles