How to format your references using the Agricultural and Food Economics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Agricultural and Food Economics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Macilwain C (2000) World Bank is urged to give greater priority to science. Nature 407:276
A journal article with 2 authors
Ma J, Lindquist S (2002) Conversion of PrP to a self-perpetuating PrPSc-like conformation in the cytosol. Science 298:1785–1788
A journal article with 3 authors
Ma J, Wollmann R, Lindquist S (2002) Neurotoxicity and neurodegeneration when PrP accumulates in the cytosol. Science 298:1781–1785
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Shiddiky MJA, Vaidyanathan R, Rauf S, et al (2014) Molecular nanoshearing: an innovative approach to shear off molecules with AC-induced nanoscopic fluid flow. Sci Rep 4:3716

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Zhang L, Peng M, Chang D, Xu Y (2016) Dam Failure Mechanisms and Risk Assessment. John Wiley & Sons Singapore Pte. Ltd, Singapore
An edited book
Buck T, Franke A, Monaghan MJ (eds) (2011) Three-dimensional Echocardiography. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Gelmetti C (2015) La dermatologia e la venereologia del secolo XVIII. In: Gelmetti C (ed) Storia della Dermatologia e della Venereologia in Italia. Springer, Milano, pp 75–101

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Agricultural and Food Economics.

Blog post
Andrew E (2014) Amazing Anatomical Body Art. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1973) Use of Computers at Naval Laboratories. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Fuentez OL (2010) Proposition 21: Juveniles tried as adults. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Otis J (2016) A Blind Man Leans on His Faith as a Source of Encouragement. New York Times A24

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Macilwain 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Macilwain 2000; Ma and Lindquist 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Ma and Lindquist 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Shiddiky et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleAgricultural and Food Economics
AbbreviationAgric. Food Econ.
ISSN (online)2193-7532

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