How to format your references using the Agricultural and Food Economics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Agricultural and Food Economics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Muggleton SH (2006) 2020 computing: exceeding human limits. Nature 440:409–410
A journal article with 2 authors
Gaillardet J, Galy A (2008) Atmospheric science. Himalaya--carbon sink or source? Science 320:1727–1728
A journal article with 3 authors
Mito Y, Henikoff JG, Henikoff S (2007) Histone replacement marks the boundaries of cis-regulatory domains. Science 315:1408–1411
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Tsang KH, Lai SK, Li Q, et al (2014) The nucleosome assembly protein TSPYL2 regulates the expression of NMDA receptor subunits GluN2A and GluN2B. Sci Rep 4:3654

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Shover L (2010) Trading Options in Turbulent Markets. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
de la Garza-Salazar JG, Meneses-Garcia A, Arce-Salinas C (eds) (2013) Inflammatory Breast Cancer. Springer, London
A chapter in an edited book
Masaki T (2015) Isoleucine, PPAR and Uncoupling Proteins. In: Rajendram R, Preedy VR, Patel VB (eds) Branched Chain Amino Acids in Clinical Nutrition: Volume 1. Springer, New York, NY, pp 41–47

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Agricultural and Food Economics.

Blog post
Luntz S (2015) Ebola Survivors Should Use Condoms Indefinitely. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2014) James Webb Space Telescope: Project Meeting Commitments but Current Technical, Cost, and Schedule Challenges Could Affect Continued Progress. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hoch VA (2014) The Effects of Systematic Reinforcement on Academic Performance in Precision Teaching: An Investigation of Acquisition, Retention, and Endurance. Doctoral dissertation, University of South Florida

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Babcock L (2008) Women, Repeat This: Don’t Ask, Don’t Get. New York Times BU19

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Muggleton 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Muggleton 2006; Gaillardet and Galy 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Gaillardet and Galy 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Tsang et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleAgricultural and Food Economics
AbbreviationAgric. Food Econ.
ISSN (online)2193-7532

Other styles