How to format your references using the African and Black Diaspora: An International Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for African and Black Diaspora: An International Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Arena, Blaise J. 2014. “Outside My Comfort Zone.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 345 (6198): 842.
A journal article with 2 authors
Allen, Richard M., and Hiroo Kanamori. 2003. “The Potential for Earthquake Early Warning in Southern California.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 300 (5620): 786–789.
A journal article with 3 authors
Sleutels, Frank, Ronald Zwart, and Denise P. Barlow. 2002. “The Non-Coding Air RNA Is Required for Silencing Autosomal Imprinted Genes.” Nature 415 (6873): 810–813.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Chien, Ellen Y. T., Wei Liu, Qiang Zhao, Vsevolod Katritch, Gye Won Han, Michael A. Hanson, Lei Shi, et al. 2010. “Structure of the Human Dopamine D3 Receptor in Complex with a D2/D3 Selective Antagonist.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 330 (6007): 1091–1095.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Wiens, John A. 2016. Ecological Challenges and Conservation Conundrums. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Schmidt, Markus, Alexander Kelle, Agomoni Ganguli-Mitra, and Huib Vriend, eds. 2010. Synthetic Biology: The Technoscience and Its Societal Consequences. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Shoukry, Yasser, Paul Martin, Paulo Tabuada, and Mani Srivastava. 2013. “Non-Invasive Spoofing Attacks for Anti-Lock Braking Systems.” In Cryptographic Hardware and Embedded Systems - CHES 2013: 15th International Workshop, Santa Barbara, CA, USA, August 20-23, 2013. Proceedings, edited by Guido Bertoni and Jean-Sébastien Coron, 55–72. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for African and Black Diaspora: An International Journal.

Blog post
Carpineti, Alfredo. 2017. “How We Are Listening To The Universe.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1999. Year 2000 Computing Challenge: DEA Has Developed Plans and Established Controls for Business Continuity Planning. AIMD-00-8. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Boakyewa, Okomfo Ama. 2014. “Nana Oparebea and the Akonnedi Shrine: Cultural, Religious and Global Agents.” Doctoral dissertation, Bloomington, IN: Indiana University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
LaFRANIERE, Sharon, Daniela Porat, and Agustin Armendariz. 2016. “Unending but Unheard, the Echo of Gun Violence.” New York Times, May 22.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Pourquié 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Murcott 2009; Perepezko 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Allen and Kanamori 2003)
  • Three authors: (Sleutels, Zwart, and Barlow 2002)
  • 4 or more authors: (Wu et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleAfrican and Black Diaspora: An International Journal
ISSN (print)1752-8631
ISSN (online)1752-864X
ScopeArts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
Sociology and Political Science
Cultural Studies

Other styles