How to format your references using the African and Black Diaspora: An International Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for African and Black Diaspora: An International Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Edgerton, David. 2011. “In Praise of Luddism.” Nature 471 (7336): 27–29.
A journal article with 2 authors
Segers, Vincent F. M., and Richard T. Lee. 2008. “Stem-Cell Therapy for Cardiac Disease.” Nature 451 (7181): 937–942.
A journal article with 3 authors
Serganov, Alexander, Lili Huang, and Dinshaw J. Patel. 2009. “Coenzyme Recognition and Gene Regulation by a Flavin Mononucleotide Riboswitch.” Nature 458 (7235): 233–237.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Chen, Kuan-Chia, Wen-Wei Wu, Chien-Neng Liao, Lih-Juann Chen, and K. N. Tu. 2008. “Observation of Atomic Diffusion at Twin-Modified Grain Boundaries in Copper.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 321 (5892): 1066–1069.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Spence, Robert. 2008. Introductory Circuits. Chichester, West Sussex: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Folke, Carl, Gary P. Kofinas, and F. Stuart Chapin, eds. 2009. Principles of Ecosystem Stewardship: Resilience-Based Natural Resource Management in a Changing World. New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Degiorgio, Vittorio, and Ilaria Cristiani. 2012. “Modulazione.” In Note Di Fotonica, edited by Ilaria Cristiani, 103–124. Milano: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for African and Black Diaspora: An International Journal.

Blog post
Luntz, Stephen. 2014. “Scientists Rewrite The Timeline Of Human Evolution.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1997. Social Security Administration: Internet Access to Personal Earnings and Benefits Information. T-AIMD/HEHS-97-123. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Chatterji, Siddharth. 2016. “A Novel Agent-Based Dynamic Load Balancing Model for Cloud Networks.” Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kolomatsky, Michael. 2017. “How Much You Need to Make.” New York Times, June 23.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Edgerton 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Edgerton 2011; Segers and Lee 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Segers and Lee 2008)
  • Three authors: (Serganov, Huang, and Patel 2009)
  • 4 or more authors: (Chen et al. 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleAfrican and Black Diaspora: An International Journal
ISSN (print)1752-8631
ISSN (online)1752-864X
ScopeArts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
Sociology and Political Science
Cultural Studies

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