How to format your references using the African and Black Diaspora: An International Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for African and Black Diaspora: An International Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Menaker, Michael. 2003. “Circadian Rhythms. Circadian Photoreception.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 299 (5604): 213–214.
A journal article with 2 authors
Greening, Bradford R., and Nina H. Fefferman. 2014. “Evolutionary Significance of the Role of Family Units in a Broader Social System.” Scientific Reports 4 (January): 3608.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ackerman, Laura K. G., Matthew M. Lovell, and Daniel J. Weix. 2015. “Multimetallic Catalysed Cross-Coupling of Aryl Bromides with Aryl Triflates.” Nature 524 (7566): 454–457.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Kobayashi, Juta, Yuichiro Mori, Kuniaki Okamoto, Ryo Akiyama, Masaharu Ueno, Takehiko Kitamori, and Shu Kobayashi. 2004. “A Microfluidic Device for Conducting Gas-Liquid-Solid Hydrogenation Reactions.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 304 (5675): 1305–1308.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Sadr, Amir. 2009. Interest Rate Swaps and Their Derivatives. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Gallud, José A., Ricardo Tesoriero, and Victor M. R. Penichet, eds. 2011. Distributed User Interfaces: Designing Interfaces for the Distributed Ecosystem. Human-Computer Interaction Series. London: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Suominen, Sakari, Tom Forsén, Salla-Maarit Volanen, Bo Isomaa, Tero Vahlberg, and Johan Eriksson. 2012. “Lower Incidence of Hypertension among Swedish Speakers as Compared to Finnish Speakers in the Helsinki Birth Cohort from Finland – An Example of Early Programming of Disease?” In Exploring the Abyss of Inequalities: 4th International Conference on Well-Being in the Information Society, WIS 2012, Turku, Finland, August 22-24, 2012. Proceedings, edited by Kristina Eriksson-Backa, Annika Luoma, and Erica Krook, 52–59. Communications in Computer and Information Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for African and Black Diaspora: An International Journal.

Blog post
Carpineti, Alfredo. 2016. “Boron Discovered On Mars For The First Time.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2002. DCPS: Attorneys’ Fees for Access to Special Education Opportunities. GAO-02-559R. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Obidos, Charisa. 2015. “Attitudes toward and Knowledge of Advance Directives: A Quantitative Study.” Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, George. 2011. “Paterno at the End: Far From the Coach We Thought We Knew.” New York Times, November 11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Menaker 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Menaker 2003; Greening and Fefferman 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Greening and Fefferman 2014)
  • Three authors: (Ackerman, Lovell, and Weix 2015)
  • 4 or more authors: (Kobayashi et al. 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleAfrican and Black Diaspora: An International Journal
ISSN (print)1752-8631
ISSN (online)1752-864X
ScopeArts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
Sociology and Political Science
Cultural Studies

Other styles