How to format your references using the African and Black Diaspora: An International Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for African and Black Diaspora: An International Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Colglazier, William. 2015. “SUSTAINABILITY. Sustainable Development Agenda: 2030.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 349 (6252): 1048–1050.
A journal article with 2 authors
Mourier, Tobias, and Daniel C. Jeffares. 2003. “Eukaryotic Intron Loss.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 300 (5624): 1393.
A journal article with 3 authors
Davies, P. C. W., Tamara M. Davis, and Charles H. Lineweaver. 2002. “Black Holes Constrain Varying Constants.” Nature 418 (6898): 602–603.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Moskun, Amy C., Askat E. Jailaubekov, Stephen E. Bradforth, Guohua Tao, and Richard M. Stratt. 2006. “Rotational Coherence and a Sudden Breakdown in Linear Response Seen in Room-Temperature Liquids.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 311 (5769): 1907–1911.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lieberman, Norman P. 2010. Process Engineering for a Small Planet. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Canuto, Claudio. 2005. Analisi Matematica I: Teoria Ed Esercizi Con Complementi in Rete. Edited by Anita Tabacco. 2a edizione. UNITEXT. Milano: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Aitken, Chris, Christine Stephenson, and Ryan Brinkworth. 2010. “Process Classification Frameworks.” In Handbook on Business Process Management 2: Strategic Alignment, Governance, People and Culture, edited by Jan vom Brocke and Michael Rosemann, 73–92. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for African and Black Diaspora: An International Journal.

Blog post
Davis, Josh. 2017. “Poorer Nations Are More Committed To Wildlife Conservation Than Richer Ones.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2016. Special Education: State and Local-Imposed Requirements Complicate Federal Efforts to Reduce Administrative Burden. GAO-16-25. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lopez, Cesar. 2015. “A Community-Based Outreach Program for Latinos in Los Angeles County Supporting Mental Health Awareness and Treatment: A Grant Proposal.” Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Ivory, Danielle, and Rebecca R. Ruiz. 2014. “G.M. Resists Expanding Victims’ Fund.” New York Times, July 19.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Colglazier 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Colglazier 2015; Mourier and Jeffares 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Mourier and Jeffares 2003)
  • Three authors: (Davies, Davis, and Lineweaver 2002)
  • 4 or more authors: (Moskun et al. 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleAfrican and Black Diaspora: An International Journal
ISSN (print)1752-8631
ISSN (online)1752-864X
ScopeArts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
Sociology and Political Science
Cultural Studies

Other styles