How to format your references using the Addiction Science & Clinical Practice citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Addiction Science & Clinical Practice. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Parker DE. Climate: large-scale warming is not urban. Nature. 2004;432:290.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Chen G, Goeddel DV. TNF-R1 signaling: a beautiful pathway. Science. 2002;296:1634–5.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Goes S, Capitanio FA, Morra G. Evidence of lower-mantle slab penetration phases in plate motions. Nature. 2008;451:981–4.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Mizuguchi M, Fuju T, Obita T, Ishikawa M, Tsuda M, Tabuchi A. Transient α-helices in the disordered RPEL motifs of the serum response factor coactivator MKL1. Sci Rep. 2014;4:5224.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Sigrist J-F. Fluid-Structure Interaction. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2015.
An edited book
1. Dingel J, Solberg A, editors. Models in Software Engineering: Workshops and Symposia at MODELS 2010, Oslo, Norway, October 2-8, 2010, Reports and Revised Selected Papers. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Swanson R, Gordon AS. Say Anything: A Massively Collaborative Open Domain Story Writing Companion. In: Spierling U, Szilas N, editors. Interactive Storytelling: First Joint International Conference on Interactive Digital Storytelling, ICIDS 2008 Erfurt, Germany, November 26-29, 2008 Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2008. p. 32–40.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Addiction Science & Clinical Practice.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. Astronomers View “Lightning” Flash In Black Hole [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Potential for Cost Reduction in Providing Message Refile Services Through DOD Telecommunications Centers. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1977 May. Report No.: LCD-76-128.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Brown MH. An Examination of Executive Function, Stress, and Adolescent Attachment to Caregivers in a Social Neuroscience Model Using the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (SECCYD) [Doctoral dissertation]. [Washington, DC]: George Washington University; 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Dynarski S. Where Charter Schools Outperform. New York Times. 2015 Nov 20;BU6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleAddiction Science & Clinical Practice
AbbreviationAddict. Sci. Clin. Pract.
ISSN (online)1940-0640
ScopeGeneral Medicine

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