How to format your references using the Addiction Science & Clinical Practice citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Addiction Science & Clinical Practice. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Hoogland JL. Prairie dogs disperse when all close kin have disappeared. Science. 2013;339:1205–7.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Keen DA, Goodwin AL. The crystallography of correlated disorder. Nature. 2015;521:303–9.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Jeong K-H, Kim J, Lee LP. Biologically inspired artificial compound eyes. Science. 2006;312:557–61.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Clark JM, Xu X, Forster CA, Wang Y. A Middle Jurassic “sphenosuchian” from China and the origin of the crocodylian skull. Nature. 2004;430:1021–4.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Quadbeck-Seeger H-J. World of the Elements. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2007.
An edited book
1. Chang MH, Jeang K-T, editors. Viruses and Human Cancer: From Basic Science to Clinical Prevention. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Ren B, Ge SS, Chen C, Fua C-H, Lee TH. Altitude and Yaw Control of Helicopters with Uncertain Dynamics. In: Ge SS, Chen C, Fua C-H, Lee TH, editors. Modeling, Control and Coordination of Helicopter Systems. New York, NY: Springer; 2012. p. 93–119.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Addiction Science & Clinical Practice.

Blog post
1. Fang J. Infant Burials In Alaska Hint At How People First Colonized The Americas [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Public Transit: Length of Development Process, Cost Estimates, and Ridership Forecasts for Capital-Investment Grant Projects. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2014 May. Report No.: GAO-14-472.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Ethridge G. Determining the variables that contribute to job tenure for people with psychiatric disabilities participating in an evidenced-based supported employment program [Doctoral dissertation]. [College Park, MD]: University of Maryland, College Park; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Powell M. Defining Success. New York Times. 2017 Jul 7;SP1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleAddiction Science & Clinical Practice
AbbreviationAddict. Sci. Clin. Pract.
ISSN (online)1940-0640
ScopeGeneral Medicine

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